Production technology for production of Coorg mandarin
Improved production technology for Coorg mandarin was developed .It has five different components. Citrus rootstocks such as Rangpur lime, trifoliate orange, rough lemon should be used for production of buddlings of Coorg mandarin. The application of 600g N, 200g P2O5 and 400 g K2O per tree per year for the healthy budded plants of Coorg mandarin is recommended for optimum growth and productivity. Three to four sprays of zinc sulphate (0.2%) and magnesium sulphate (0.5%) with lime during new flush period is recommended for better growth and production. For control of citrus mealy bug, lady bird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri muls) should be used. Bt and Verticilium lecani can be successfully used for control of citrus butterfly and soft green scale, respectively. Trichoderma harzianum should be used for control of Phytophthora diseases.
Rejuvenation technology for Coorg mandarin
The rejuvenation technology for Coorg mandarin consist application of nutrient through soil and foliar application and control of diseases and pests. The soil application of 25 kg FYM + 5kg neem cake + 150g Trichoderma harzianum + 400g N, 125g P205 and 275g K20 in two splits (pre- and post-monsoon) + 1 kg dolomite twice (June and October)is recommended. The remaining 220g N, 75g P2O5 and 25 g K2O should be given as 8-10 foliar applications at monthly intervals. Application of zinc sulphate (0.2%), magnesium sulphate (0.5%) calcium chloride/ calcium nitrate(0.5%) once a month is recommended. Spraying of imidacloprid / monocrotophos at 10 days interval during peak flush periods and at 15 days intervals during other periods is recommended for control of disease transmitting vectors. Spraying of wettable sulphur (0.3% ) at monthly intervals during post monsoon periods, soil drenching with metalaxyl or mancozeb + metalaxyl (0.2 %) or potassium phosphonate (0.3 %) and foliar application of 0.2 per cent metalaxyl / phosetyl al / potassium phosphonate four times a year is recommended for disease control.
Cropping based technology for improved productivity of Coorg mandarin.
A cropping system trial was established in CHES, Chettalli with Coorg mandarin budded plants , coffee and black pepper on Erithrina. Coorg mandarin seedlings along with coffee and black pepper on Erithrina was grown as check. Long term effect of these treatments on growth, leaf nutrient and soil properties were evaluated. It was found that there was no significant difference in fruit yield of budded plants under different treatments. However, fruit yield of seedling plants were significantly lower than the budded plants. There was no significant effect of these treatments on growth attributes viz. Plant height, stock girth, bud joint girth, scion girth and spread of the Coorg mandarin plants. There was no significant effect of treatments in influencing the concentration of nutrients viz. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn in leaf samples of Coorg mandarin plants. The effect of different treatments on measured soil properties viz. pH, organic carbon, exchangeable ca and mg and the concentration of available N, P, K, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in soil was not significant.
Standardization of technology for organic production of papaya
Different combinations of organic manures were evaluated for organic cultivation of Coorg honey dew papaya. The yield/tree, fruit weight, and reducing sugar percentage were highest in the plants applied with inorganic fertilizers of 250:250:500 g NPK / plant /year. The results showed that fruit length, fruit girth, pulp thickness, TSS and total sugar were non significant. The plant treated with FYM was on par with recommended dose (250:250:500 g NPK / plant /year).
Development of high density technology for banana
Four banana varieties cv. Grand Naine, Nendran , Ney Poovan and Red Banana and three densities 1.8x1.8m as check, three suckers/hill at a spacing of 1.8 x 3.6m for Grand Naine and 2.0 x 3.0m for Nendran , Ney Poovan and Red Banana varieties were planted for yield and other parameters. The yield of all varieties was highest in the planting density (1.8x3.6 m) and 3 x2 m distance with planting of three suckers per hill.
Standardization of shoot tip grafting (STG) technique in Coorg mandarin
Shoot tip grafting (STG) technique was standardized with optimum size and sources of shoot tips on the success of STG and protocols were optimized. Rangpur lime rootstock seeds were cultured on standard MS basal media and two weeks-old etiolated seedlings were decapitated and shoot tip sizes of Coorg mandarin comprising of meristem with 3 leaf primordia were excised from the actively growing flushes of the plants maintained under net house environment and placed in the triangular cut at the apical end of the decapitated rootstock seedling under in vitro conditions. The highest percentage (51.17) of successful stg plants was obtained when the 3 leaf primordia of 0.5 mm scion was for grafting. As regards the sources of shoot tips, the highest percentage of successful grafts (42.61) was obtained with those shoot tips excised from net house as compared to the ones from field grown plants (21.68). Success of in vitro shoot tip grafting indicated positive correlation with the size and sources of shoot tips.
Standardization of protocol of production of disease free planting material of Coorg mandarin
The protocol for production of disease free planting material of Coorg mandarin was standardized. Which consist of production of Rangpur lime seedling from nucellar seedlings, use of scion wood from disease free mother plants maintained under insect proof net cum polyhouses and indexing of mother plants and buddlings.
Inter-cultivation in Coorg mandarin
In Coorg region, mandarin is grown as intercrop in coffee plantations. Coorg mandarin in coffee based cropping system with two row of coffee at 2.8m x 2.8m and one row of Coorg mandarin at 2.8m x 5.5m has been found most profitable .in pure mandarin orchards, inter cultivation with papaya and pineapple were found profitable during the pre-bearing period.
Water management in Coorg mandarin
Water requirement of Coorg mandarin is different in growth and reproductive phases. In order to avoid moisture stress during growth phase, irrigation at 10 days interval from March to end of April is beneficial in sustaining the vigour of plants. However, in the reproductive phase, irrigation should be given as blossom shower either through sprinkler or drip irrigations (18-20 litres of water per day per plant for one week-one acre inch) during March-April and thereafter supportive irrigations to ensure sufficient soil moisture for retention and good growth of fruits. Mulching the basins with dry leaves during summer conserves soil moisture.
To minimize the damages arising from the development of soil-borne diseases, effective drainage is necessary.
Pest Management in Coorg mandarin
Major insect pests included leaf miner, black Citrus aphid, psylla, oriental red mite Eutetranychus oreientalis and orange shoot borer. Fruit flies and fruit sucking moths were confined to fruiting seasons.
Citrus leaf miner (Chyllocnistis citrella) showed four population peaks in a year on Coorg mandarin and nine peaks on Rangapur lime. Availability of tender flush seemed to be major governing factor with weather parameters showing no correlation application of foliar spray of imidacloprid 0.03 % or quinalphos 0.2 % or fenvalerate 0.05 % at the time of appearance of new flush controlled leaf miner. In citrus nursery indoxacarb @ 0.04% was most effective in controlling leaf miner.
Citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri): Maximum number of insects was recorded from March to May with two population peaks with first peak from late March to early May and second in late December coinciding with emergence of new flushes. Natural enemies including general predators like Coccinellid beetles, Syrphids flies and spiders & parasitoids (Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligharenis) though brought down psyllid population considerably, did not suppress pest to below economical level. Crucial period for chemical intervention was third and last week of October, second to third week of April, fourth to last week of May and third to fourth week of June. Cirtrus psylla could be effectively controlled by spraying thiamethoxam 0.05 % or acetamiprid 0.005% or imidacloprid 0.005% or fenvalerate 0.005%. Botanical formulations had no effect on psyllids.
Brown/ black citrus aphid Toxoptera citrida , T. aurantii: highest number of aphids caught on the yellow sticky traps included Toxoptora citricida followed by, T. aurantii, Apis gossypii and A. spiraecola. Cubical & cylindrical yellow sticky traps were highly efficient in trapping aphids management practices have to be initiated during January, April, June and October for suppressing aphids. Three neo-nicotinoids (thiamethoxam (0.05%) and imidacloprid (0.005%) and acetamiprid (0.005%) were most effective chemicals as against botanical formulations in the management of aphids.
Fruit flies (Bactrocera caryeae /Bactrocera dorsalis) and fruit sucking moths (Otheraea spp): active during fruiting season. Effective management of fruit flies and fruit sucking moths could by done by erecting methyl eugenol traps @ 4/acre and bait traps respectively during fruiting season.
Management of diseases on Coorg mandarin
Coorg mandarin plants have been affected by a number of fungal, viral and bacterial diseases. The higher infection of these diseases and the other abiotic stresses has created such a situation that it becomes difficult to grow healthy crop in the region with out proper management of these biotic and abiotic stresses. The station has extensively worked on the management of these factors .Among the fungal diseases are Phytophthora root rot, foot rot, stump rot, gummosis leaf and fruit rot, powdery mildew, are important. The research works on epidemiology, management of these diseases through evolving resistant rootstocks, improved cultural practice such higher budding height and chemical and biological control were carried out. A package of practices was recommended for integrated management of Phytophtora infections in Coorg mandarin which includes (a) application of 100-150g of Trichoderma harzianum Culture along with 5kg neem cake per plant (b) Use of Coorg mandarin budded plants raised on Rangpur lime or Cleopatra mandarin root stocks. (c) Avoiding low budding, proper planting in the field maintaining tree trunks free from sprouts (d) application of Wettable Sulphur (0.3% ) at monthly intervals during post monsoon periods, soil drenching with metalaxyl or mancozeb + metalaxyl (0.2 %) or potassium phosphonate (0.3%) and foliar application of 0.2 per cent metalaxyl / phosetyl AL / potassium phosphonate four times a year is recommended for disease control.The disease like powdery mildew can control by the application of Wettable sulphur (0.3%) or Carbendazim (0.1%) or Contaf(0.2%) on new flushes.
Among the virus and virus like diseases associated with the Citrus decline are greening, Tristeza and Psorosis .The citrus black aphid and psylla are the vector responsible for spread of these diseases. The indexing of the trees of the orchards of the region suggests the major role of greening disease in the decline of Coorg mandarin. On the basis of the findings of the trails, some management approaches were suggested for the control of these diseases
Improved Crop Production Technology for Papaya
Spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 m and an application of 250g N and 250g P2O5 and 500g K2O per plant per year in six split doses is recommended for optimum growth and productivity of the variety.
Production technologies of under utilized fruits
The standardization of rambutan propagation techniques revealed that the approach grafting in the month of March and December gave higher success(upto 75 %) as compared to T and patch budding and veneer and cleft grafting. Similarly cleft grafting was found most effecting in multiplication of avocado with success of 70- 80 percent compared to T and patch budding and veneer grafting. Cleft grafting was also found for multiplication of grafted passion fruit plants.
Improved Production Technology of Hybrid Passion fruit
Improved Production Technology of Hybrid Passion fruit Includes planting of rooted or grafted plants in 45 q.cm feet size pits at 2X3 m spacing on the onset of monsoon. These plants should trained on 2.5 m long poles of iron or wooden poles at erected at 6 m distance with 8 guage wire fixed on the top. The plant should be trained in two arm kniffin system selected going back of secondary lines to 4-5 nodes ,generally after harvesting of crops during the month of April and Nov. - Dec. A fertilizer dose 90g nitrogen, 50g .of Phosphorus,100 g potassium per plant per year in three split doses is recommended. Drip irrigation is found beneficial for higher yield and good quality fruit. There is no major pest for passion fruit but brown leaf spot and Fusarium Collar rot, Phytophthora, Leaf blight are major disease of passion fruit. This may be controlled by application of suitable fungicide with proper drainage system.
Improved production technologies of Pineapple:
In improved production technology of pine apple suckers are planted at higher density ( 53,000 to 63,000 plants / ha). Pre-emergence Weedicide are used for control of weedicide. For inducing flowering, 25 ppm of ethephon with 0.04% Sodium Carbonate should be applied at 40 leaf stages
Vegetable demonstration/ trials conducted during recent years and revealed that almost all vegetable crop grown successfully during Dec. to May with surface or Drip irrigation. IIHR vegetable varieties (Tomato – Arka Rahsak and Arka Samrat , Chlili – Arka Meghana and Arka Kyati, Brinjal – Arka Anandh ,Okra – Arka Anamika , Amaranth – Arka Suguna and Arka Arunima , Palak – Aruna Anupama,Dolichos – Arka Samrat and Arka Samphram, Pumpkin – Arka Suryamuki, Ridge gourd – Arka Sujat, Yard long bean - Arka Mangala, Radish - Arka Nishanth, and Beans (Arka Snoop) were found successfully grown in this area.
More than 300 varieties of roses, 10 varieties of Hibiscus and many other flowers are maintained at this station. Large number of wild orchids have been collected and maintained at this station. The major includes Dendrobium crepidatum, Vanda tessellate, Liparis viridiflora, Rhynchostylis retusa, Phoidata pallid, Dendrobium aqueaum, Cymbidium bicolor,Aerides ringens etc. These collections have been maintained at the station. Some the orchids have potential for potted orchids and now it starts flowering.
Updated on 05.03.2014