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Exploration, collection,domestication & conservation of genetic resources in horticulture crops

Objective: 

 

  1. Identify and demarcate regions/ hot spot areas rich in diversity of indigenous horticultural species relevant to the mandate crops of IIHR and generate distribution patterns of the wild progenitors/relatives of these crops
  2. Track shifts in horticultural plant diversity patterns & disturbance regimes using RS-GIS tools and isolate horticulturally rich germplasm regions/ecosystems to identify potential diversity rich areas to be explored in a focused manner
  3. Study temporal distribution patterns of species - to identify new species which can be domesticated and cultivated as new crops as a part of crop diversification, adding new crops to the existing crop diversity. Identify in situ bio-reserves for species in question for further evolution
  4. Provide a road map for targeted exploration missions and assist in exploration and collection of hort PGRs from indigenous sources and enable species specific focused exploration missions by mapping species distribution areas and identifying the coordinate points in hotspot regions
  5. To facilitate sustainable collections for ex situ activities for augmentation of species specific genetic diversity by locating and collecting plant propagules of target species from distribution sites identified in the Western Ghats; Identification of successfully established target species under ex situ situations
  6. Make attempts to domesticate species by ex situ planting, compare with wild species in terms of vegetative and reproductive parameters, identify domestication syndromes and reproductive barriers if any, monitoring pest load under ex situ situations; optimization of seed germination, phenological, floral biology, pollination requirements, incompatibility studies, in vitro culture, micropropagation, hardening and acclimatization.
  7. Domestication of edible fruit species hitherto not introduced and cultivated and increase populations of the species through conventional and non-conventional propagation methods; Explore participatory approaches for domestication, leading to cultivation; Establish a demo orchard for each of the targeted species
  8. Optimization of conservation and cryopreservation protocols for recalcitrant seed, in vitro plants  and pollen of targeted  fruit (Jack fruit, Garcinia, Aegle marmelos passion fruit and Rambutan), vegetable(French bean), ornamental crops, RET medicinal plant species for development of ex situ conservation strategies.
  9. Establishment of In vitro active genebank for the selected species towards formulating a stable (without genetic changes) conservation strategy involving in vitro systems including embryonic axes of  targeted crops/species; Expand collections in pollen cryobank for selected species
  10. Genetic Stability testing of conserved PGRs: To assess genetic stability of in vitro and cryopreserved germplasm using SSR/ISSR markers

 

Date of start of this programme: 2009

 

 

PI: 

 

Dr S.Ganeshan

 

CO PI: 

 

Dr. P.E Rajasekharan

Dr. H.S.Yogeesha     

Dr. Anuradha Sane,  

Dr.P.V.R Reddy  

Dr K.Shivaramu  

Dr. Bhanuprakash   

Dr.K.Padmini 

 

Achievements: 

 

  • Compilation of distribution maps for target species like Solanum melongena, Garcinia Feronia elephantum, Limonia acidissima, Psidium spp, Vitis discolarspp, 'Vitis heyneana', Vigna radiata var. sublobata,V. capensis, V. pilosa, V. umbellata, V. dalzelliana., V. mungo var. silvestris, V. radiata var. setulosa, V. grandis ,V.wightii, V. unguiculata, V. pilosa, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna monosperma Aegle marmelos, Andrographis paniculatus, Spondias pinnata,f Ziziphus rugosa, Zizyphus oenoplia Cucumis setosus, C. trigonus, and Luffa  graveolens from IBIN database of the Western Ghat region.
  • Distribution map of the species along the western  ghats was documented covering the coastal states of Kerala, part of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Tree distribution details were recorded for about 1 taluk locations spread across Maharastra  states.
  • Added  location details up to taluk levels as indicated in the parenthesis, Diospora.montana(14), D.melonoxylon(8), D.cloroxylon(0), D.ebenum(4), D .exuscalpa(1), D.ferrea(1),D.kaki(0) ,   D.lanceofolia(0), D.lotus(0), D.pruriense(2), D.sylvestica(5), D.toposia(0),D.peregrina(1), Ensete superba(0)3) Mangifera indica(20), M.sylvetica(0) 4)Butea monosperma (67) 5)Erythrena variegata,(34), E. indica, (2)Anthocephalus cadamba, (7),Nyctanthus arbo-tristis,(6),Woodfordia floribunda,(0),Abelmoschus angulosus,(0),A.moschatus, (4),A.manihot, (4),A.ficulneus, (1), A.esculentus(3))Cucumis setivus(9), (0),C.trigonus(3),C.melo(4),Cucurbita pepo(0)C. maxima(3),)Luffa graveolens, (0)L acutangula(2),L.aegiptica (1),L.achinata (0),)Momordica cochinchinensis, (1),M balsamia (6),M. subangulata, (0),M. charantia(6), M.diocia (0),M hastata (2))Trichosanthesanamalaie(0),T.bracteata,(5),T.cuspidata,(0),T.perottitiana,(0),T.cucumerna(16)
  • Distribution details along with maps, fliers and images to be documented wherever information is available for target species.
  • Establishment of linkage with NRSC for sharing of biodiversity database after acquisition of requisite hardware and software.
  • Extraction of already available distribution maps for target species from existing databases and new regions mapped by NRSC under the data sharing agreement, using DIVA-GIS (available) & ARC-GIS( if approved and purchased). Establish contact with RRSSC/ISRO
  • Germination trials were conducted in two species of Psidium. Germination percent in two species worked out in fruits collected in first season bearing.Fruit characters of two species of  Psidum  documented with vegetative and reproductive pheonology.Clonal propagation attemted in open field and in partial shade condition. F.montana  rooted  well (25% rooting) but failed to establish when repotted.Two Psidium species  cuttings failed to root in similar condition.
  • Evaluation of post-cryopreserved & germinated seedlings of Feronea  elephantum   (Limonia spp)  will be continued as compared with normal seeds, field transplantation and establishment to be taken up. Results showed that after nearly one month of sowing seeds for germination, 24.4 % cryopreserved seeds germinated, as against 57.1% controls. Seedlings are maintained in the net house. A total of 150 plants are maintained

 

Publications:

 

  • P.E.Rajasekharan & S.Ganeshan Designing ex situ conservation strategies for some threatened & other medicinal plant species of South India The IUP Journal of Genetics & Evolution-3(3) 2010,24-31
  • S.Ganeshan & P.E.Rajasekharan Palynological contributions to conservation continuum Journal of Palynology Festschrift Volume(46) 2010
  • Srinivasan Ganeshan, Punathil Ellath Rajasekharan, Sunitha Bhaskaran (India) 2012. In Vitro Conservation of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology Volume 6 Special Issue Forest Restoration 1 pp 126-129
  • Syed Asadulla, Ramandangand Rajasekharan.P.E.2013.-Preliminary phyto chemicals investigation  of Embelia ribes. International Journal of research in pharmacy and chemistry IJRPC, 3(2) 389-91
  • Syed Asadulla, Ramandang, Rajasekharan.P.E., 2012- Botanical standardization of the Embeli Ribes Burm.F. and possibilities of species substitute,in  The pharma review (May - june 2012)   pp. 98-103
  • P.E. Rajasekharan 2012 Genetic resources of horticultural crops in India: Diversity and conservation. Proceedings of the conference National Seminar On “Horticulture for livelihood security, economic prosperity and sustainable development” 24-26th September, 2012  Dept of Horticulture, Aromatic & Medicinal Plants (HAMP) School of Earth Sciences & Natural Resources Management Mizoram University (A Central University) Aizawl- 796 004 pp1-9

 

Presentation in National and International Seminar/Symposium etc.

 

  1. S.Ganeshan & T. Vasantha Kumar 2010.Prospecting, conservation, cultivation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the Indian context. National conference on horticultural biodiversity, Livelihood, Economic Development & Health care-held at Bangalore-29-31May,2010
  2. S.Ganeshan: 2010 Biodiversity Inventorization in different ecosystems & its relevance to Conservation Continuum and Management of Genetic Resources National Conference On Developmental Biology-NACON D Bio 2010, Sep-15-17 2010 Bangalore
  3. S.Ganeshan, 2010. Pollen Conservation as Nuclear Genetic Diversity for improvement of Citrus. Lead talk presentation at National Seminar on Citrus biodiversity for Livelihood and nutritional security. NRCC, Nagpur, Oct-4-5, 2010.
  4. S.Ganeshan,2010. Conserving Plant Genetic Diversity-Current Strategies presented as an invited talk in the National conference on Plant diversity: Prospects and problems of conservation.KJC Life Sciences, Bangalore 27-29 Oct,2010
  5. S.Ganeshan,2010. Gene Banking In MAP-Current Status Of PGR Conservation & Management In The Indian Sub Continent. Accepted for presentation in the National Conference on biodiversity of MAP: collection, Characterization and utilization.Nov-24-25,2010
  6. Dr,P .E. Rajasekharan: Biodiversity, bioprospecting ,innovations and intellectual property rights and Intellectual Property Rights for Grassroot Innovators.Two day National Workshop  on “Intellectual Property Rights for Grassroot Innovators”Jointly organized by PIC-Kerala, KSCSTE & Malabar Botanical Garden (MBG), Kozhikode.

 

Books and Chapters:

 

  • P. E Rajasekharan, B.S Ravish, T. V. Kumar and S.Ganeshan –2013, Pollen Cryobanking for tropical plant species.- book chapter- in Conservation of tropical plant species Ed. M.N.Normah, H.F.Chin, Barbara M. Reed  .Springer USA, pp 65-76
  • Participation of scientists in conferences, meetings, workshops, symposia in India and abroad
  • S.Ganeshan and D.L.Shetti 2012, Use of contemporary Bioresource databases  for Mapping ,occurance  and distribution species of Horticultural importance –A critical evaluation of WG databases- Accepted for publication as key note address in Global Conference on Horticulture for Food , Nutrition and Livelihood options :  Swadesh Prem Jagriti Sangosti –May-28-30, Bhubaneshwar 2012
  • Reports: RPF-II, RPP-II SUBMITTED.

 

Other information:

 

  • The results under this project would help develop a road map for exploration missions across the country
  • New species domesticated in this project will add to the existing crop diversity
  • Optimize complementary conservation strategies for PGR of Horticulture crops.
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