DNS Bar Code

DNA FINGERPRINTING OF IMPORTANT  VARIETIES OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES, ORNAMENTAL , MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS

Background

Technically accurate methods are important in protection of new released genotypes and hybrids. Establishment of an effective molecular identification system(s) helps in the development of superior new genotypes/hybrids. Protection of plant breeders’ rights helps to stimulate investment in research and development.

Identification of new genotypes/hybrids/cultivars is based on morphological traits in most crops (International Union for Protection of New Varieties of Plants [UPOV]. However, these characteristics suffer from environmental effects, epistatic interactions, and other effects. Breeders look for alternative approaches to develop improved lines, including the use of molecular markers for characterization of desirable traits and genotypes. DNA fingerprinting techniques including restriction fragment length  polymorphism (RFLP), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and simple sequence repeat (SSR) are used for cultivar identification in a wide range of species due to their high heritability and sufficient polymorphism to discriminate genotypes .The resulted barcodes, derived from the allelic variation of the microsatellite loci, clearly differentiate the cultivars under study. The barcoding representation, which is shown in  various Figures, has been generated using microsatellite markers or other types of molecular markers . This barcode representation can be used as a fingerprint profile for each cultivar as it clearly shows a unique pattern. It will further help by acting as a reference or standard. This barcode profile is a visual representation of the data, allowing easy detection of genotypic differences, thereby helping in the identification of the individual with absolute certainty.

Status of DNA fingerprinting as on Jan 2014

 

Sl.No

Crop

Number

Varieties/ Lines

1

Mango

269

Varieties and germplasam of South India

2

Guava

9

Kamsari, Local purple,  H 4-27, H 12- 20, H54-1,

Allahabad safeda, triploid, Arka Amulya, Arka Mridula

3

Papaya

6

Surya, Arka Prabhat,Dwarf Lily, Sunrise Solo

Thinung 1, Pink Flesh

4

Litchi

 

21

Longia, Shaha, Trikolia,  Kasba Greem, China Dehradun , Rose scented, Early Bedana Mandraji,  BombaiII Ajhauli,  Purbi,  Latelarge,  Swarnroopa LateBedana,  BombaiI Surguja Bedanaaa Dehrarose

5

Rambutan

6

ACC no. 14, ACE no. 26, ACC no. 28,ACC no. 29, ACC no. 30,       and ACC no. 31

6

Tomato

27

H 240, H 162, H 241, L 15, TLBER 12-21-43-1, TLBER7-4-11-29, 2498E, TLBER 38-7-4-27, TLBR 4 , ARKA ANANYA, VAIBHAV LINE,  TLBER 7-14-11-34 , TLBER7-12-15-28 ,  BN--10-2, TLBR-4, TLBR-6, ARKA VIKAS, ARKA MEGALI, ARKA SHRESTA(BRH-1), ARKA ABHIJIT(BRH-2), TLBRH-6, SAKTHIMAN HYBRID, ABINAVA HYBRID, PR-3, PR-4, KTS-1 and KTS2

7

Brinjal

5

2BMG-1,Arka Anand,SM6-6, IIHR-3,IIHR-7

8

French bean

 

Arka suvidha, Arka Anoop, Arka Bold, Arka Sharath,Arka Komal, IIHR 55-1

9

Cowpea

5

Arka Suman, Arka Samrudhi, Arka Garima, IIHR-8, IIHR-16B

10

Peas

4

IIHR 18-3, Arka Ajit, Arka Kartik, Arka Sampurna

11

Dolichos

3

Arka Jay, Arka Vijay,IIHR3-5

12

Chilli

16

Arka lohitha, ICPN 11-7, Arka suphal, Arcl 228, MS-4C,NSH-250, Arka ahbir, Arka meghana, PMR-14, MSH 206, VNR-32, MS-3C, Arka swetha,    ICPN 11-2,      MS-1C       Arka haritha   

13

Crossandra

9

Arka Ambara, Arka Kanaka, IIHR 2005-1, IIHR 2005-2, Mangalore Local, Lakshmi, Green, Local

14

Carnation

1

Arka Flame

15

Tuberose

14

Prajwal, Vaibhav, Shringar, Suvasini, Arka Nirantara , Hyderabad Double ,Variegated, Pearl Double, Swarna Rekha, Mexican Single ,Phule Rajani

16

Rose

4

GS Randhawa, Nishkant, Kiran and Arka Parimala

17

Gladiolus

14

 

Shobha, Sagar,Kumkum,Poonum,Arka Kesar,Apsara,Sindhur, Darshan,Aarthi,Tilak, Shakthi,Sapna,DrFleming,Shirley

 

Total

413

 

 

 

Eggplant varities and Hybrid DNA barcodes:  5 varities /hybrids have been fingerprinted by using 35 SSR markers and the barcodes generated are shown below.

 

Guava  varities and Hybrid DNA barcodes:  In guava 7 genotypes namely, Kamsari, Local Purple, H4-27, H12-20, H54-1, Allahabad Safeda,   Triploid, Arka Amulya and Arka Mridula have been fingerprinted using 23 microsatellite markers for guava. The barcode profile generated is depicted in the fig  shown below.

 

Tomato  varities and Hybrid DNA barcodes:27 varities /hybrids have been fingerprinted by using 10 core set SSR markers and the barcodes generated are shown below.

 

Mango  varities and Hybrid DNA barcodes:India is a centre of origin of Mango and it is estimated that more than 1000 varieties of this fruit is grown here. It is important to fingerprint these varieties in order to protect our genetic diversity. Fingerprint profiles have been generated for 269 genotypes of mango using 14 STMS markers developed at the institute. The profile of 50 varieties is shown in the fig 3 given below

 

Tubrose varities and Hybrid DNA barcodes:    11 varities of tubrose have been  DNA finger printed and Molecular barcodes have been developed which act as unique fingerprint, contains 57 different loci generated by 11 ISSR primers.

 

Onion varities and Hybrid DNA barcodes:    11 varities of tubrose have been  DNA finger printed and Molecular barcodes have been developed which act as unique fingerprint, contains 57 different loci generated by 22 SSR primers.

Carrot varities and Hybrid DNA barcodes:    17 varities of tubrose have been  DNA finger printed and Molecular barcodes have been developed which act as unique fingerprint, contains 57 different loci generated by 31 SSR primers.