FAQ

The nutrient use efficiency of fertilizers can be enhanced by appropriate placement, method and time of application consistent with the behaviour of the fertilizer nutrient in soil. In the case of nitrogen which is a relatively mobile nutrient, banding and deep placement/incorporation in the soil will be helpful. The time of fertilizer application to synchronize with the period of high root activity and crop need will maximize its use efficiency. In the case of ‘Arka Vikas’ tomato (a semi-determinate type) for instance, a saving of 25% N-input was possible without loss in yield by postponing the basal application after planting and applying the fertilizer in 3 equal splits within 30-35 days of planting.

Efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen use was studied in 6 vegetables viz., tomato, onion, brinjal, okra, chilli and French bean using 15N-enriched fertilizer. The utilization of fertilizer N ranged from 13.9% in chilli to 44.8% in brinjal. Onion showed the highest N use efficiency ratio as well as physiological efficiency while brinjal showed the highest agronomic efficiency. Nitrogen balance studies showed that a large portion of applied N ranging from 31.7% in onion to 80% in French bean remained in the soil, most of it in the top 30cm of the soil. Loss of N fertilizer from the soil ranged from 0 in French bean to as high as 50.7% in onion. The relative dependence between soil and fertilizers differed considerably among different vegetables. However, in general, the vegetable crops depend more on fertilizer source during vegetative growth till flowering stage due superficial root growth. At later stages, they depend more on native source due to root proliferation at deeper depths. Any fertilizer applied at later stages, therefore, tends to go unutilized.

Yes – different fruit crops, their varieties and the rootstocks substantially vary in the root activity distribution pattern. The root activity distribution pattern of each kind is unique and is best expressed when the soil is porous, deep and well-drained. However, this is significantly altered when the soil structure, depth, impediments to root growth and drainage differ in each situation.At Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, root activity studies were carried out on a Typic Haplustalf a sandy loam soil, which possessed a textural (Bt) horizon at 20cm+ depth. The accumulation of clay at these depths leads to hard consistency when dry and poor water movement which restrict root growth. However, these depth yet encourage deep root growth in some crops due to high volumetric soil moisture found during late rainy and winter seasons (July-November).

  • Onion drum seeder

  • A set of Nursery machinery for big nursery

    1. Media siever
    2. Media mixer
    3. Automatic media filling, dibbling, sowing and watering machine
    4. Protray handling trolleys
  •  A set of nursery machinery for small nusery

    1. Hand operated tray type protray dibbler

    2.  Hand operated rotary type protray dibbler

    3. Hand operated dibbler

    4.  Hand operated tray type vacuum seeder

    5.  Hand operated vacuum seeder

    6.  Hand operated depopper

  •  Garlic bulb breaker and peeler

  •  Design of Green houses/ net houses for cultivation of vegetables

  • Vegetable which are in demands in frozen forms are peas, carrot, cauliflower, French beans and mushrooms.
  • Which fruit and vegetables can be processed?
  • Practically any fruit and vegetable can be processed, but some important factors which determine whether it is worthwhile are:
  • The demand for a particular fruit or vegetable in the processed form;
  • The quality of the raw material, i.e. whether it can withstand processing;
  • Regular supplies of the raw material.

On Typic Haplustalf, a sandy loam soil of Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, mango and guava were found to be deep-rooted in nature under rainfed conditions (Table 1). On the other hand, citrus (4 varieties, Sweet orange, Coorg mandarin, Kagzi lime and Kinnow mandarin) varieties were necessarily shallow rooted crops.

In the latter crop, incorporation of fertilizers at shallow depth (a common practice in most orchards) and irrigation will be quite effective. In the deep-rooted crops, however, similar practices may be less effective and the crops depend more on native and sub-soil sources of nutrients and moisture. Grape is a shallow rooted crop by nature and may act as a deep-rooted crop under the influence of high weed infestation of the orchard.

Banana and papaya are relatively succulent fruit crops grown under irrigated conditions. As these are closely planted in the orchards, it was found that the root activity was fairly uniformly distributed upto 45 cm depth and laterally throughout. As a result, these crops can utilize the native soil nutrients thoroughly and can be exhaustive crops.

 

 

  • Onion drum seeder

  • A set of Nursery machinery for big nursery

    1. Media siever
    2. Media mixer
    3. Automatic media filling, dibbling, sowing and watering machine
    4. Protray handling trolleys
  •  A set of nursery machinery for small nusery

    1. Hand operated tray type protray dibbler

    2.  Hand operated rotary type protray dibbler

    3. Hand operated dibbler

    4.  Hand operated tray type vacuum seeder

    5.  Hand operated vacuum seeder

    6.  Hand operated depopper

  •  Garlic bulb breaker and peeler

  •  Design of Green houses/ net houses for cultivation of vegetables

On Typic Haplustalf, a sandy loam soil of Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, mango and guava were found to be deep-rooted in nature under rainfed conditions (Table 1). On the other hand, citrus (4 varieties, Sweet orange, Coorg mandarin, Kagzi lime and Kinnow mandarin) varieties were necessarily shallow rooted crops.

In the latter crop, incorporation of fertilizers at shallow depth (a common practice in most orchards) and irrigation will be quite effective. In the deep-rooted crops, however, similar practices may be less effective and the crops depend more on native and sub-soil sources of nutrients and moisture. Grape is a shallow rooted crop by nature and may act as a deep-rooted crop under the influence of high weed infestation of the orchard.

Banana and papaya are relatively succulent fruit crops grown under irrigated conditions. As these are closely planted in the orchards, it was found that the root activity was fairly uniformly distributed upto 45 cm depth and laterally throughout. As a result, these crops can utilize the native soil nutrients thoroughly and can be exhaustive crops.

 

 

  • Vegetable which are in demands in frozen forms are peas, carrot, cauliflower, French beans and mushrooms.
  • Which fruit and vegetables can be processed?
  • Practically any fruit and vegetable can be processed, but some important factors which determine whether it is worthwhile are:
  • The demand for a particular fruit or vegetable in the processed form;
  • The quality of the raw material, i.e. whether it can withstand processing;
  • Regular supplies of the raw material.