1. Based on the phenotyping and other physiological expression, the physiological traits tolerant to water stress and high temperature were identified in tomato, chilli and onion and incorporated in the breeding programme. Cultivars having better osmotic adjustment recorded higher yields under water stress. The differential growth of root and shoot of tomato under water stress was related to osmotic adjustments. Stigma browning and stigma exertion (more than 1mm) found to affect the fertilization of ovary of tomato at high temperature and thus the flower drops. 2. Cell membrane Stability (CMS) test through electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were found to be effective physiological factors for evaluating the vegetable crops for tolerance to abiotic stresses. 3) The critical water potential for seed germination in tomato and brinjal ( 0.4 M.Pa) and chilli ( 0.4 M.Pa to 0.6 M.Pa) was worked out and it was found that the water sensitive phase of germination occurred prior to radical growth in these crops. 4) In bell-pepper, a light intensity of 800 to 950 mol m-2 s-1 PAR is suitable for better growth and higher yield and essential to maintain this intensity under protective cultivation and cultivation during summer. 5) In okra, the seeds obtained from middle nodes had higher germination percentage and also the fruits were on these nodes were found to be strong sink for photo assimilates. The seeds collected from these nodes recommended for seed collection in okra. 6) A concentration of 100 ppm was standardized for Indian tomato in improving the fruit set under high temperature conditions. 7. Exogenous application of osmoprotectant (glycinebetaine) has improved the plant growth and performance under water stress in chilli and tomato as indicated by greater photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and its partitioning to reproductive organs under water stress condition in above mentioned crops. 8. Wild species of tomato and brinjal rootstock were found to be useful tool for improving tolerance to high (flooding) and low moisture stress (drought) in tomato. 9. Based on physiological markers, tolerant genotypes/lines to water stress were identified and used as a parents for breeding the drought tolerant hybrid/varieties in chilli. In onion, the genotypic variability to water tolerance indicated that the genotype with small bulb size along with erect leaf orientation performed better under water stress.
Bhatt, R.M. and Srinivasa Rao, N.K. 1987. Seed germination and seedling Growth responses of tomato Cultivars to imposed water stress. Journal of Horticultural Science (UK), 62: 221-225(1987). Bhatt,R.M. and Srinivasa Rao,N.K. 1989. Photosynthesis and dry matter Partitioning in three cultivars of Capsicum annuum L. grown at two temperature conditions. Photosynthetica, 23: 21-262. Bhatt, R.M. and Srinivasa Rao,N.K. 1993. Response of bell-pepper to(Capsicum annuum L.) defoliation.Photosynthesis,dry matter and Fruit growth. Photosynthetica, 28: 377-382. Bhatt, R.M. and Srinivasa Rao, N.K. 1997. Source-sink relationship in Abelmoschus esculentum L. Biologia Plantarum, 39: 223-228. Bhatt, R.M. and Srinivasa Rao, N.K. 1997. Growth and photosynthesis inBell-pepper as affected by sink manipulation . Biologia Plantarum, 39: 437-439. Bhatt,R.M and N.K.Srinivasa Rao 1993. Translocation of photosyntheticAssimilate during pod development in okra (Hibiscus esculentus).Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 63: 708-711. R.M. Bhatt N.K. Srinivasa Rao and R. Veere Gowda 2004. Genotypic variability of physiological responses to water stress in Onion (Allium cepa L.). Tropical Agriculture, 81:1-5. Srinivasa Rao, N.K. and Bhatt, R.M. 1989 Distribution of 14C-Sucrose applied to leaves at different nodes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) during flowering and early pod growth. Annals Of Applied Biology, 115: 521-527. Bhatt , R.M.Srinivasa Rao, N.K and Sadashiva,A.T. 2002. Rootstock as a source of drought tolerance in tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 7: 338-342 R.M. Bhatt N.K. Srinivasa Rao and R. Veere Gowda 2004. Genotypic variability of physiological responses to water stress in Onion (Allium cepa L.). Tropical Agriculture, 81:1-5. Bhatt, R.M,Srinivasa Rao, N.K Upreti,K.K. and Shobha,H.S. 2009. Floral abscission and changes in sucrose phosphate synthase and invertase activities in water deficient tomato. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 14: 370-376
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