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IIHR weather report

CROP WEATHER SITUATION

METEOROLOGICAL DATA OF

ICAR-INDIAN INSTITUTE OF HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH

 HESSARAGHATTA, BANGALORE – 560 089

 
 

Period: 16th to 30th April, 2017

 

Latitude: 13071 N                   Longitude: 770 291E              Altitude: 890 M

 

Fortnight

Temperature (0C)

Relative Humidity (%)

 

Evaporation

(mm)

 

Wind speed

(km/h)

 

Total Rainfall

(mm)

Average

Max.

Average

Min.

Average

At 7.30AM

Average at 1.30 PM

April

16th to 30th,

2017

35.6

21.0

70.9

32.6

5.9

3.04

12.1

(33.1)

 

(20.4)

     (73.1)

    (41.9)

    (6.1)

  (4.7)

 

(15.1)

 

* Figures in the parentheses indicate the average values during the corresponding period for the previous 5 years

 

Fortnight from 16th to 30th April, 2017

 

During the second fortnight of the month i.e., from April 16th to 30th, 2017, the average maximum temperature and minimum temperature were higher by 3.50C and 3.10C respectively, as compared to the previous fortnight. The average maximum and minimum temperature remains same, as compared to the average values of the corresponding period for the previous five years. The percent relative humidity during morning and evening were higher by 1% and 5.2% respectively, as compared to the previous fortnight. There was 15.1 mm rainfall during the fortnight.

 

Crop weather situation

 

The average maximum and minimum temperatures for this period are slightly higher than the average values for the corresponding period for previous five years. Total Rainfall and Relative Humidity during this period also lower. Straw mulching may be provided at the base of the plants to reduce evaporation losses. The lower evaporation and wind speed and moderate rainfall are good for both fruit crops like mango and summer vegetables. Field preparation may be taken up and basal application of manures and fertilizers may be taken up. Supplementary irrigation to the standing vegetable crops as well as newly established fruit crops orchard may be continued with increasing irrigation frequency intervals. Foliar spray of micronutrients may be given to vegetable crops and fruit crops as deficiency symptoms may appear now. It was observed that there was poor development of aril and rind colour of pomegranate due to high temperature. Slightly hastened maturity of mango fruits of var. Raspuri and Arka Puneeth and sunburn of undersized fruits in variety ‘Dushehari’ was observed. Because of high temperature and less rains sprouting was delayed and uneven in Flame Seedless grapes which were pruned during mid of April. Weather during the fortnight was suitable for the cultivation of Milky mushroom and Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) with additional humidity requirement. Oyster mushroom showed lower yield and lighter sporophore colour with longer stipes and loose bunches due to higher temperature.


Incidence of pests and diseases

 

Under the prevailing weather situation, following pests are expected under Bangalore conditions on various horticultural crops. Various management options for their management are mentioned below.

 

Mango fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

 

As the fruits had attained maturity stage, incidence of fruit fly is expected.  For its management following measures are suggested:

  • Install methyl eugenol traps @ 6 /acre. Traps can be procured from IIHR or KVKs or firms licenced to manufacture IIHR traps.
  • Collection and destruction of fallen fruits.
  • Bait splash on tree trunks with 10% jaggery solution mixed with deltamethrin.
  • Community approach at village level is recommended for the effective management of this pest.

 

Grapes Flea Beetle

 

Incidence of flea beetle is expected on newly pruned vines. For its management following measures are suggested:

 

  • Remove all loose bark
  • Rake the soil in basin to expose grubs and pupae to sunlight.
  • At early bud sprout –spray of  imidacloprid  200 SL @ 0.3ml/L or Lambda-cyhlothrin 5 EC @ 0.5ml/L.

 

Grape thrips

 

On newly pruned grapes, thrips infestation on leaves is expected. Spray Metarhizium anisopliae formulation @ 2ml/L two times at weekly interval or fipronil 5SC @ 1.5 ml/L twice at fortnightly interval.

 

Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis)

 

For its management following measures are suggested:

 

  • Release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 75,000 per week (for four weeks), if the incidence is moderate.
  • Install pheromones traps in the field.
  • If the incidence is very severe, for the management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, spray Rynaxypyr 20 SC @ 0.3 ml/l rotate with Emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 0.3g/liter followed by indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 0.75 ml/litre.

 

Mites on tomato and Ridge gourd

 

  • Rising temperatures favour mite multiplication. For the management of mites, spray spiromesifen 22.9SC @ 0.5ml/L or fenazaquin 10 EC @ 1.5ml/L at fortnight interval.

 

Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis on chilli

 

  • Incidence of thrips may increase on chilli and capsicum. For its management, spray fipronil 5SC @ 1.5 ml/l or spinetoram 11.7 SC@ 1ml/litre or spinosad 45 SC @ 0.5ml/litre alternating with imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.5 ml/l at fortnightly interval if the crop is at early stage of infestation.  Addition of 2 ml of neem oil or pongamia oil per every liter of insecicide spray solution enhances the efficacy of the chemicals against the pest. 

 

Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae on rose

 

For its management following measures are suggested:

 

  • During the period, severe incidence of mites is observed on roses grown under polyhouse conditions. Spray abamectin @ 0.5 ml/l or fenazaquin 10 EC @ 1.5ml/L at fortnight interval for their management.

 

Disease Scenario

 

Disease forecast based on weather parameters during the second fortnight of April, 2017.

 

Grape

  • Grapevines should be protected against the infection of downy mildew by the application of 0.4g Dimethomorph  + 2.00 g Mancozeb /l or Metalyxl + Mancozeb (0.2%)/ Al Fosetyl (0.2%) along with sticker @ 0.5 ml/ l. Lower surface of the leaves on the vines to be sprayed properly. 

 

Banana

 

  • Low incidence of Sigatoka (Mycospheralla sp) and other leaf spots needs attention. The disease can be managed by the application of with Carbendazim (0.1%) or Thiophanate methyl (0.1%) or Tridemorph (0.1%), whereas crown rot, anthracnose and Macrophoma fruit spot disease (Specially on var. Grand Naine) could be controlled by the pre-harvest sprays involving Carbendazim (0.1%) or Thiophanate methyl (0.1%), besides post harvest dip in Chlorine water (300 ppm) for 10 minutes.

 

Mango

 

  • Anthracnose (C.gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (L. theobromae) are expected to infect mango fruits during ripening. Pre-harvest sprays with Carbendazim (0.1%) or Thiophanate methyl (0.1%) or Azoxystrobin (0.1%) followed by post-harvest treatments with Hot water (52oC) for ten minutes is recommended.

 

Pomegranate

 

  • Intensity of leaf and fruit spot disease caused by Pseudocercospora punicae and anthracnose of fruit and leaf (C. gloeosporioides) may increase further. Application of Chlorothalonil (0.2%) /Antracol (0.2%)/ Carbendazim (0.1%)/ Thiophanate methyl (0.1%)/ Hexaconazole (0.1%) along with the sticker @ 0.5ml/l is effective for the disease control.
  • Nodal Blight needs further attention. Application of COC (0.2%) + Streptocycline (300 ppm) /l along with the sticker @ 0.5ml/l should be applied at the interval of 15 – 20 days.

 

Papaya

 

  • Infection of Anthracnose (C. gloeosporioides), Black spot (Asperisporium caricae) may further increase. Application of Chlorothalonil (0.2%), Carbendazim (0.1%)/ Thiophanate methyl (0.1%)/ Hexaconazole (0.1%) along with the sticker @ 0.5ml/l with good coverage of the lower surface of the foliage is recommended. 

 

Guava

 

  • Canker (Pestalotiopsis psidi) in greenish immature guava fruits and styler end rot (Phomopsis psidi) and anthracnose (C. gloeosporioides) should be taken acre. For the disease management application of Zineb (0.3%) or Ziride (0.4%) followed with Carbendazim (0.1%)/ Thiophanate methyl (0.1%)/ along with sticker (0.5 ml /l) should be followed.

 

Vegetables

 

  • Due to intermittent rains as summer showers which was more than expected, the increased incidence of foliar diseases like anthracnose, leaf spots due to Alternaria and Cercospora is expected.  For anthracnose application of Difenoconazole (0.05%)/ Thiophanate methyl (0.1%),/ Carbendzim + Mancozeb (0.2%) /Bitertanol (0.2%) along with sticker 0.5ml/l will be effective.  For leaf spots preventive spray with chlorathalanil or mancozeb @ 0.2% will reduce the incidence.
  • Leaf spots in rose and gerbera. Spraying trifloxistrobin at 0.1% along with sticker 0.5ml/l will help in reducing powdery mildew spread under protected cultivation.   If not spread extensively tebuconazole or hexaconazole at 0.1% with sticker also will help.

 

Virus diseases

 

  • Change in weather especially low humidity with increase in temperature favours sucking pests which are vectors of many virus diseases. Dry spells followed by intermittent rains and high temperature favour vector populations.  Seed treatment with imidacloprid or spray of acephate (0.2%) will be effective in controlling vector population in vegetables.  For perennial crops acephate spray at 0.2% will reduce vectors.
 

Updated on 11.05.2017

 

 

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