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Venugopalan R

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Statistical modeling and Biometrical Genetics
Ph.D (Agril.Stat) IASRI (1996): ARS 1995 Batch
Experience (No. of Years): 
25 years
  • Developed  non-parametric stability models/indices for crop varietal release in horticultural crops by considering stability over all traits with data driven weights to the traits (Venugopalan Indices)
  • Suggested a robust ANOVA based approach for handling outliers in perennial crop experiments possessing high CV
  • Developed ANN models to arrive at the crop logging parameters (significant yield contributing biometric factors) across different crop growth stages along with their optimum values for Banana (cv Ney poovan & Robusta) and Papaya (cv Surya).
  • Developed statistical models for optimizing the role of weather factors on disease incidence of Anthracnose & Downy mildew in Grapes (cv Anab-E-Shahi), Powdery mildew in Mango (cv Alphonso) and Blossom blight in Mango (cv Totapuri).
  • ANN models for population dynamics of Thrips in chilli and capsicum (across different rating) in relation to weather factors were developed.
  • A menu driven statistical package for horticultural research (SPHR 1.0) was developed on windows platform facilitating day-to-day IIHR research projects statistical data analysis.
  • Nonlinear stochastic models for disease dynamics in Grapes: Logistic and Gompertz statistical models were developed to express the downy mildew disease progression
  • Non-linear statistical models were developed to study the population dynamics of thrips across different ratings in Capsicum.
  • Developed stability models in Watermelon, Chilli and Onion and identified lines/hybrids which are stable for commercial exploitation, and for release as a variety.
  • Developed a statistical package for performing stability analysis research in vegetable crops.
  • Method for revalidation of canopy architecture model in Mango based on resampling procedure.
  • A quick model for estimation of leaf area in Fig (Cv Deanna) using non-destructive sampling approach Bootstrap method to evaluate the sampling efficiency and arrive at optimum sample size for leaf area estimations in Fig(Poona) by non-destructive sampling.
  • Statistical models were developed for describing ideo-type canopy architecture of Thompson Seedless vine & Alphonso
  • A nonlinear statistical models in carbon sequestration studies in Mango.
  • Suggested statistical procedures to solve the problems of multi-collinearity/outliers in entomological experiments, before proceeding for carrying out classical regression analysis
  • Constructed advanced statistical experimental designs for varietals/germplasm evaluated under resource constraint scenario (Crop: Okra)
  • Developed a nonparametric index for assessing the relative performance of IIHR technologies
  • Developed statistical models to ascertain reasons for aril browning in Pomegranate
  • Developed a statistical model for identifying factors increasing Jasmine crop productivity
  • Response Surface Models  for optimising input-use (nutrient/water) efficiency in Acid lime and Mango

Variety released and genetic stock registered: As a multi-disciplinary research team member of Ornamental breeding program, released a Gladiolus variety Arka Naveen (for flower quality having 9 days of vase life as a prominent character with yield 1-1.5 marketable spikes/corm). As a multi-disciplinary research team member of Ornamental breeding program, Registered (IC0584125; INGR:10067;) a gladiolus germplasm at PGRC/NBPGR, New Delhi, (for Floret colour), under plant germplasm registration system of ICAR 2010.

Education: Involved in education activities since 2001 with recognition of guide for Agriculture Statistics students of UAS, Bangalore. To honour the MOU with UHS(B), since the first batch (2009-10), offering a compulsory Statistics course to their Ph.D students till today for 10 consecutive batches. With the recognition of IIHR as off campus of IARI during 2014,  implemented the education activities as Chairman PG Education, ICAR-IIHR, till March 2017. As an organizing secretary, conducted the first ever Horticulture Education Conference at IIHR on 24 September,2016, with mobilizing the participation of 220 students and 55 faculties across our country. Under the guidance of Professor, due to fruitful interaction with Education Division, ICAR during 2016, generated one time PG education promotion fund of Rs.27 lakhs (through IARI) and established at ICAR-IIHR three state of art Classrooms and one conference hall with smart board teaching facilities (first time at IIHR) in each of the rooms coupled with  modern dining mess/cafeteria for students. Four issues of students exclusive newsletter were also released. Organised Yoga camp, Sports week, All-India study tour, CAD training, Hindi seminar for students co-curricular activities. As Chairman PGE, facilitated to sign MOU with TNAU,UAS, JNKVV, ANGRAU and SHIATS during 2015-17. As a teacher, offered 19 courses during 2014-2022 with sole course leader in 12 courses for UHS and IARI-IIHR. Introduced first time at IIHR, smart board teaching (as an innovation in teaching method) during 2016 IARI session for the course AS 602. Recognized as faculty(Agri. Statistics) with IARI, UHS, UAS, DRYSRHU and Jain University.  Recognised since 2018, in Doctoral Committee Board of NIMHANS (Institute of National Importance) for Ph.D (Biostatistics)students research problem formulation and evaluation. As of now guided 4 students in Agricultural Statistics and as statistician for 150 M.Sc/Ph.D students of UAS,UHS, IARI-IIHR, DRYSRHU in Horticulture, PHT, Soil Science, Plant Pathology, and Entomology.

Organized an in-house (six batch of a week duration) Statistical training program on Horticultural Data Analysis Recognized as faculty with UAS, Bangalore, UHS, Bagalkot, APHU, A.P and Jain University, Bangalore for guiding students and course leader for offering statistics courses.

Identified as expert (Statistics) to serve as a Faculty member of Central Silk Board (CSB) to conduct statistical training along with IIM(B)/IISc professors to Directors, Asst. Directors and Scientists of CSB during 2002,2003,2004. Serving as RAC member with NHRDF, New Delhi since 2015. Serving as PG Board Faculty external member with DRYSRHU, A.P.

Teaching: Offered as course leader HST 604: Applied Regression Analysis (2+1) for the Ph.D students of UHS (B) since inaugural 2010 session onwards (till present 2022 session).

Offered as course leader PGS 504: Basic Statistical methods for Agricultural Research (2+1) for the Ph.D students of IARI-IIHR since 2014-15 session onwards.

Offered as course leader AST 602: Advanced Statistical Genetics (1+1) for the Ph.D students of IARI-IIHR during 2014-15 and 2015-16.

List of crops covered under multi-disciplinary research projects of stat lab, IIHR (since 2000)

Fruit crops: Banana/Papaya (Crop logging models); Mango/Grapes/Fig (Canopy architecture models); Mango/Grapes (disease forecasting models); Pomegranate (Selection index) Mango, Acid lime,Passion fruit (Response surface models)

Vegetable crops: Chilli, Cucumber, Watermelon, Brinjal and Onion: Biometrical/stability models’ Okra: Advanced designs for evaluating germplsam lines; Tomato: Substrate dynamics models’ Chill, Capsicum, Brinjal, Onion, melons: Pest population dynamics models

Ornamentals Jasmine, Rose, Gerbera (crop production models).

 Under consultancy services extended Statistics lab,IIHR extends statistical consultancy on planning, designing, analyzing and interpretation of scientific project data and provide training for the same. Editor, JHS since 2009 for assessing statistical adequacy of the article submitted for publication.

Recognized as coordinator for Education Division of ICAR Sponsored Short Course "ICTs for Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Agricultural Research, Education and Extension of NARES", during 13-22, Nov. 2018 at ICAR-IIHR.

Released a   PRACTICAL MANUAL ON "Experimental Designs For Basic And Biometrical Genetics Studies In Horticultural Crops", Post Graduate School in Horticultural Sciences, ICAR-IIHR.PP.37, for the benefit of IARI-IIHR Ph.D students and R based practical manuals for ICAR-IARI students.

Research papers published in the area of Agricultural Statistics/ statistical modeling/ biometrics        (only peer refereed articles)

  1. R.Venugopalan and Prajneshu (1996). Trend analysis in all-India marine product export using statistical modelling techniques. Indian J.Fish., 43(2):107-13.
  2. P.K. Bajpai and R. Venugopalan (1996).  Forecasting sugarcane production by Time Series Modelling. Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology. 11(1): 61-65.
  3. R.Venugopalan and Prajneshu(1997). Von-Bertalnffy growth model with auto-correlated errors. Indian J.Fish., 44(1):63-67.
  4. R.Venugopalan and Prajneshu(1997). A generalized allometric model for determining length-weight relationship.  Biometrical Journal. Germany. 39:733-39.
  5.  Prajneshu and R.Venugopalan(1997). Statistical modeling for describing fish production in India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 67(5):452-56.
  6. R.Venugopalan and Prajneshu(1998). On nonlinear procedure for obtaining length-weight relationship. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 68(1):70-72.
  7. Prajneshu and  R.Venugopalan (1998). Comparative study of non-equilibrium vis-à-vis equilibrium Schaefer model. Indian J.Fish.,45:1-6.
  8. R.Venugopalan  and M.Srinath.(1998). Modelling and forecasting fish catches: Comparison of regression ,univariate and multivariate time series methods. Indian J.Fish., 45(3):227-37.
  9. R.Venugopalan, K.Padmini, P.S.Swathi Lekshmi, V.Lenin, and P.C.Latha. (1999). Application of PRA technique for field problem identification. Agricultural Extension Review. July-August,1999 Pp.1-9.
  10. Prajneshu and R.Venugopalan(1999). Von Bertalanffy growth model in random environment. Canadian J.Fish.& Aquat.Sci.1999. 1026-30.
  11. M.Krishanan, P.S.Birthal and R.Venugopalan (1999). Consumer willingness to pay for seafood and domestic market development- The contingent valuation approach. Ind. Jn. of Agric. Econ., 54:566-72.
  12. R.Venugopalan and Prajneshu (2000). Pella-Tomlinson statistical model with autocorrelated errors. J.Ind.Soc.Ag.Statistics. 53(1): 12-19.
  13. E.Vivekanandan and R.Venugopalan (2001). Markov chain application to assess changes in threadfin bream species composition.  Indian J.Fish., 49(3). 241-245.
  14. R. Venugopalan and K.S.Shamasundaran. (2003).  Nonlinear regressions: A realistic modeling approach in horticultural crop research. J. Ind. Soc. Ag. Statistics.56:1-6.
  15. Shamasundaran, K.S., R.Venugopalan and K.P.Singh.(2003)  Necessity of optimum sample size for yield estimation in floricultural crops.  J.Orn.Hort.6(3):244-47.
  16. M.Mani, A.Krishnamoorthy, and R.Venugopalan (2004). Role of the Aphelinid Parasitoid Encarsia guadeloupae in the Suppression of the Exotic Spiralling Whitefly on Banana in India. Biocontrol Science and Technology, Canada (September 2004). Vol. 14. No.6. 619-622.
  17. M.Mani, A.Krishnamoorthy, R.Venugopalan and G.L.Patter (2004). Biological control of exotic Spiralling Whitefly Aleurodicus disperses Russell on Guava by Encarsia (?) haitiensis Dozier and Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani in India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. Vol.10. No.1. pp 29-39.
  18. N.K.Krishnakumar, R.Venugopalan and P.N.Krishnamoorthy, (2004). A statistical modeling approach to study the influence of weather parameters on the leafminer in South India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. Vol.10. No.1. pp 55-59.
  19. R.Venugopalan,2004. On non-equilibrium surplus production model  for stock assessment. In V.S.Somvanshi (Ed.) Large Marine Ecosystem: Exploration and Exploitation for sustainable Development and conservation of Fish Stocks. Fishery survey of India, Mumbai, pp.143-151.
  20. N.K.Krishnakumar, R.Venugopalan and P.N.Krishnamoorthy, B.Shivkumara and H.R.Ranganath (2004). Influence of weather parameters on the attraction of male egg plant shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee to synthetic sex pheromone in South India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems.10. No.1. pp 161-167.
  21. R.Venugopalan and R.Veere Gowda (2005).Stability Analysis In Onion: A Statistical Look. J. Indian Soc. Coastal agric. Res., 23(2), 123-29.
  22. R.Venugopalan and K.S.Shamasundaran (2005).  Statistical model for evolving crop-logging technique in banana. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 82(1):25-29.
  23. R. Venugopalan and   Prajneshu (2006).  Bootstrap estimation for non-equilibrium Schaefer surplus production model. Indian J. F. 53:115-118.
  24. Gopalakrishna Pillai,K and R. Venugopalan (2005). A statistical modeling approach for multiple analysis of Job performance. Indian Journal of Extension Education. 41 (3 & 4): 13-16.
  25.  J.Satisha, G.S. Prakash and R. Venugopalan (2006). Statistical modeling of the effect of    physio-biochemical parameters and water use efficiency of grape varieties, rootstocks and their stionic combinations under moisture stress conditions. Turk.J. Agric For. 30 (206): 261-271.
  26. Nita Khandekar, R. Venugopalan, M.R.Hegde, B.Balakrishna, S. George, Achala Paripurna, Shamasundaran, K.S(2006). Prioritization of Horticultural Technologies through Rank Based Quotients Technique. Environment & Ecology, 24S (4) : 1071-1074.
  27. R.Venugopalan, R.D.Rawal and A.K.Saxena (2006). A statistical model for ascertaining the influence and reliability of weather parameters on incidence of blossom blight in mango (Mangifera indica L.)Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 1(1):64-67
  28. K.S.Shamasundaran and R.Venugopalan (2006). Statistical modeling for pre-harvest forecast: an illustration with rose. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 1(1):68-70.
  29. C.M.Kalleshwaraswamy, A.Verghese, H.R.Ranganath, N.K.Krishnakumar, M.R.Dinesh and R.Venugopalan (2007). Role of Transient Aphid Vectors on the Temporal Spread of Papaya Ringspot Virus in South India. Acta.Hort., Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science740, ISHS PP 251-258.
  30. M.Mani, N.S.Kulkarni and R.Venugopalan (2007). Role of weather factors in the population fluctuation of the two spotted red spider mite Tetranchus Uraticae Koch (ACARI: Tetrany Chidae) on Grapewine.  InternationalJ. Acarol.,16 (1&2): 47-49.
  31. Bindu Panicker, Pious Thomas, Tolety Janakiram, Rangarajan Venugopalan, and Sathyanarayana B. Narayanappa. (2007). Influence of cytokinin levels on in vitro propagation of shy suckering chrysanthemum “Arka Swarna” and activation of entophytic bacteria. 43(6). In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant. PP 614-622.
  32. Rawal, R.D., Venugopalan, R. and Saxena, A.K. (2008). A statistical model for describing the epidemiology of incidence of downy mildew in grapes. Acta Hort.Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, (ISHS) 785:279-284.
  33. Rawal, R.D., Venugopalan, R. and Saxena, A.K. (2008). A statistical model for predicting the outbreak of powdery mildew in grapes. Acta Hort. International Society for Horticultural Science(ISHS) 785:293-296.
  34. Shikhamany, S.D., Somkuwar, R.G. and Venugopalan, R. (2008). Evaluation of canopy efficiency using leaf area index in thompson seedless vines.Acta Hort.,International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) 785:389-392.
  35. P.S. Swathi Lekshmi, R. Venugopalan and Padmini K (2008). Livelihood Analysis using Wealth Ranking Tool of PRA. Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 8 (2&3): 75-77.
  36. Mani, M., Visalakshy, P.N. Ganga, Krishnamoorthy, A. and Venugopalan, R.(2008). Role of Coccophagus sp. in the suppression of the soft green scale Coccus viridis (Green) (Hompoptera: Coccidae) on sapota, Biocontrol Science and Technology,18:7,721 — 725.
  37. Jayanthi, P. D. K, Verghese, A. and Venugopalan, R. (2008). Studies on the role and reliability of weather factors on incidence of sapota bud borer, Anarsia achrasella (Vill.). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems.14(2):133-139.
  38. Venugopalan, R., KRM Swamy and M.K. Chandra Prakash, 2008. Augmented BIB Design-an alternative statistical design in germplasm evaluation trials, Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 3(1): 84-88.
  39. Sujatha A. Nair, Sujatha, K. and Venugopalan, R. 2009. Influence of pruning time on enhancing the yield and quality of Jasminum sambac flowers during off-season. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 79 (11): 857-60.      
  40. Tul Bahadur Poon, T. M. Rao, D. P. Kumar, R. Venugopalan, M. V. Dhananjaya(2009). Study on Floral Biology of Gladiolus Genotypes. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology.10: 37-43.
  41. Venugopalan, R., and Pitchaimuthu, M. (2009). Statistical models for stability analysis in watermelon, Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 4(2):153-157.
  42. Swathi Lekshmi, P S and Venugopalan, R and Padmini, K (2009) P R A methods for studying the impact of technology adoption in crop and poultry enterprises in a rural village.Indian Journal of Social Research , 50 (1). pp. 1-14.
  43. Meena,K.,Pratheepa,M.,Subramaniam,K.R.,Venugopalan,R. and Bheemanna,H. 2009. A Gini Index Based Decision Tree Analysis for Predicting the Occurrence of the pest, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and its Natural Enemies on Cotton. International Journal of Information Technology and Management Research, 1(2), July-December, 2009, pp. 67-76.
  44. Khandekar, N.,A.Paripurna, R. Venugopalan and M.R. Hegde 2009. Trainers' Training an effective means of communication of new technologies. Journal of Communication studies 28(3):37-42.
  45. S. H. Jalikop, R. Venugopalan  and R. Kumar (2010). Association of fruit traits and aril browning in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Euphytica (2010) 174:137–141.
  46. Meena, K., Pratheepa, M., Subramaniam, K. R., Venugopalan, Rand Bheemanna H (2010). A Decision Tree Induction Approach to Study the Population Dynamics of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and its Natural Enemies on Cotton. Engineering and Computer Science. 2010, pp580–586.
  47. K.Srinivas,V.V., Sulladmath,R. Palaniappan and  R. Venugopalan(2010).Plant Water Relations, Yield and Nutrient Content of Passion Fruit in Relation to Evaporation Replenishment and Fertigation. Indian Journal of Horticulture (2010). Vol.  67,    No.  3. PP 1–6.
  48. Pratheepa,M., MeenaK.,SubramaniamK.R.,VenugopalanR.,BheemannaH (2010). Seasonal population fluctuations of cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in relation to biotic and abiotic environmental factors at Raichur, Karnataka, India. Journal of Biological Control. 2010. 24(1).pp.47-50.            
  49. R.Venugopalan (2010). Application of statistical principles for evolving crop-logging models in banana (cv Ney Poovan). Tropical Agriculture, 87(1), pp. 29-32.
  50. Kumar, Sudhir, Rao, Venugopalan, R, V K , Nair, AK and Chithiraichelvan, R (2010). NPK Requirement for Annatto (Bixa orellana L.)Seed Yield and Bixin Content. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 12 (2):48-51.
  51. Pratheepa,M., Meena,K., Subramaniam,K.R.,Venugopalan,R.,Bheemanna,H (2011). A decision tree analysis for predicting the occurrence of the pest, Helicoverpa armigera and its natural enemies on cotton based on economic threshold level. Current Science, VOL. 100,  (2), 25 pp 238-46.
  52. Vijay Kumar, Shreekant Kesari, Krishna Kumari, B. Krishnakumari,R. Venugopalan, and Pradeep Das (2011). Comparison of In Vivo Host Animals as Blood-Feeding Source for Laboratory Rearing of the Sandfly Vector  Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 104 (3).pp. 429-433.
  53. R.Venugopalan and R.D.Rawal(2011).Effect of outliers in statistical modelling for predicting the outbreak ofanthracnose in grapes. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 81(10): 61-63.      
  54. H. P. Sumangala, K. Manivannan, A. S. Sidhu and R. Venugoplan (2011).Molecular characterization of senecio species using RAPD markers. Plant Archives. 11(2): 657-660.
  55. H. P. Sumangala, K. Manivannan, A. S. Sidhu and R. Venugoplan (2011).Evaluation of senecio species of northern parts of western ghats. Plant Archives. 11(2): 711-718.
  56. Pratheepa,M., Meena,K., Subramaniam,K.R., Venugopalan,R., Bheemanna,H (2011). Neural-network Classifier for the Prediction of Occurrence of Helicoverpa Armigera (hübner) and its Natural Enemies.Journal of Biological Control.25(2):134-42.
  1. Prakash, K., Pitchaimuthu, M., Venugopalan, R., Hongal, Shivanand and Jainag, K. (2011). Variability, heritability and genetic advances studies in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], Asian J. Hort., 6 (1) : 124-127.
  2. Prakash, K., Pitchaimuthu, M., Venugopalan, R., Hongal, Shivanand and Jainag, K. (2011). Genetic diversity studies in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(2):440-443.
  3. Rekha, A, M.R..Dinesh, R.Venugopalan and B.N.S. Murthy (2011). Genetic correlation and cluster analysis in sapota (Manilkara zapota). Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 6(2): 101-104.
  4. Rajiv Kumar, Deka, B.C, War,M and R.Venugopalan (2012). Response of exotic gerbera under low cost poly house and shade net in sub-ropical mid hills of Meghalaya. Indian J. of Agricultural Sciences., 82 (6):543-47.  
  5. R Venugopalan and K Madhavi Raddy (2010). Stability analysis for fruit yield and attributing traits in chilli.Veg.Sci.37 (2): 141-145.
  6. Rajiv Kumar, Deka, B.C, and R.Venugopalan (2012).Genetic variability and trait association studies in gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)for quantitative traits. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 82 (7): 615–19.
  7. K.Srinivas and R.Venugopalan (2012).Response Surface Models in High Density Mango Under Fertigation.The IUP Journal of Life Sciences, 6(1): 7-13.
  8. Kumar Sudhir, Venugopalan R, Rao V.K., Nair A.K., Chithiraichelvan R (2012).Requirement of major nutrients for annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seed yield and bixin content.Indian Journal of Horticulture,69(3):399-403.
  9. Pavan Kumar, Janakiram,T, Kumar,D.P and Venugopalan,R (2011). Correlation studies in Heliconia genotypes. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 14(1&2): 21-23.
  10. Varun S.Amingad, Manjunathrao, T, Bhanuprakash,K, Kumar,D.P, Dhananjaya,M.V and Venugopalan, R (2011). Enzymatic changes associated with dissipation of dormancy in Gladiolus corms. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 14(1&2): 70-74.
  11. Pavan Kumar, Janakiram,T, Kumar,D.P and Venugopalan,R (2011). Genetic variability studies in Heliconia cultivars. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 14(3&4): 10-13.
  12. H. P. Sumangala, K. Manivannan, A. S. Sidhu and R. Venugoplan (2012).Characterization of four Senecio species based on visual morphological descriptors. Progressive Horticulture, 44(1):9-14.
  13. Poonam Kumari, Manjunatha Rao, T. Dhananjaya,M,V, Rajiv Kumar, Venugopalan, R and Seetharamu, G.K. (2102). Hybridization for developing Fusarium wilt resistance genotypes in gladiolous. Crop Improvement (Special Issue): 279-280.
  14. George, S., Venugopalan, R., Balakrishna, B., & Hegde, M. R. (2012). Training Variables Influencing Training Outcome. Journal of Extension systems.12(2):35-43..
  15. Selvakumar,G; Joshi, Piyush; Suyal, Preeti; Mishra, P.K; Joshi, G.K; Venugopalan, R; Bisht, J.K; Bhatt, J.C; Gupta, H.S (2013). Rock phosphate solubilization by psychrotolerant Pseudomonas spp. and their effect on lentil growth and nutrient uptake under polyhouse conditions.Annals of Microbiology63:1353–1362.
  16. G.S. Ravi, R.Venugopalan, K. Padmini and D.M. Gowda (2013). Nonparametric measures for assessing yield stability in cucumber. International Journal of
    Agricultural and Statistical Sciences.9(1):365-371.
  17. Devi, B. Nightingale, M. Krishnan, R. Venugopalan and B.K. Mahapatra, 2013. Artificial Neural Network Model for Synergy Analysis of Input Markets in Ornamental Fish Trade in Mumbai, Agricultural Economics Research Review, 26(1):83-90.
  18. N Vijay, R Venugopalan, A Srinivasaraghavan (2013). The influence and reliability of weather parameters on incidence of downy mildew in grapes. BIOINFOLET – A Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences,10(3a): 848- 850.
  19. N Vijay, R Venugopalan, A Srinivasaraghavan (2013). Association among weather parameters and incidence of downy mildew in grapes. BIOINFOLET – A Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences,10(3a): 804- 807.
  20. Vasugi, C., Sekar, K., Dinesh, M. R., and Venugopalan, R (2013). Studies on genetic divergence in unique indigenous mango accessions of Western Ghats. International Journal of Current Research, 5(9): 2494-99.
  21. Panneerselvam, P., Saritha,B; Sukhada, M; Upreti,KK; Poovarasan,S; Sulladmath,VV and Venugopalan,R  (2013). Effect of mycorrhiza-associated bacteria on enhancing colonization and sporulation of Glomus mosseae and growth promotion in sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill) Forsberg) seedlings. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture. 29(2): 118-131.
  22. Varun S.Amingad, Manjunathrao, T, Venugopalan, R, Kumar,D.P, Dhananjaya,M.V and Bhanuprakash,K, (2013). Effect of temperature and storage period on breaking dormancy in various gladiolus genotypes. Journal of Horticultural Sciences,8(1): 114-17.
  23. R.Hanumanthaiah, R.Venugopalan, D.M.Gowda, K.Padmini, V. Manjunath, G.B.Mallikarjuna and S.Thippeswamy (2014). Statistical models to identify significant crop-logging parameters influencing crop-yield across various growth stages in brinjal. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science.84(5): 664-668.
  24. Muralidhara B. M., Reddy Y. T. N., Venugopalan R., Akshitha H. J., Shivprasad M. K (2014). Effect of VA Mycorrhiza on seedling growth and vigour of mango. BIOINFOLET,11(2(b)):536-538.
  25. D. Lokeshwari, M. Hayat, N. K. Krishna Kumar, H. Manjunatha and R. Venugopalan (2014). First Occurrence of the Aphid Parasitoid, Aphelinus basilicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), on Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Color Forms in India. Florida Entomolgist,97(2): 809–813.
  26. R.Chithiraichelvan, Ravindra Kumar, S. Ganesh and R.Venugopalan (2013). Simple models for non-destructive leaf area prediction in fig (Ficus carica L.) cv. Deanna and Poona. Indian Journal of Arid Horticulture,8(1-2):10-15.
  27. D. Lokeshwari, A. Verghese, S. Shivashankar, N.K. Krishna Kumar,H. Manjunatha and R. Venugopalan (2014). Effect of Aphis odinae ( Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation on Sugars and Amino Acid Content in mango. African Entomology22(4):823-827.
  28. R.Venugopalan and N. Vijay (2015). Nonlinear Logistic Model for Describing Downy Mildew Incidence in Grapes. J. of Indian Soc., of Agri., Stat.,69(1):19-25.
  29. Venugopalan,  R. 2015,  Yield prediction in banana (Musa × paradisiaca) (cv Grand Naine) by ANN models. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 85(6): 859-60.
  30. Gayatri,K, Rajiv Kumar, G.K. Seetharamu, T. Manjunatha Rao, M.V. Dhananjaya, R.Venugopalan and K.Padmini (2015).  Character association and path coefficient analysis among quantitative traits in China aster (Callistephus chinensis). Current Horticulture. 3(1): 35-40.
  31. M.R. Dinesh, C. Vasugi and R. Venugopalan (2014). Genetic variability in some Indian mango cultivars and hybrids. J. Hortl. Sci.  9(2):113-116.
  32. Gayatri, K, Rajiv Kumar, G.K. Seetharamu, T. Manjunatha Rao, M.V. Dhananjaya, R.Venugopalan and K.Padmini (2014).  Genetic Variability for Quantitative Traits in China Aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees. J. Hortl. Sci.9(2):141-144.
  33. S.C. Kotur, P.R. Ramesh and R. Venugopalan(2014). Evaluating direct feeding of de-navelled banana bunch with nutrients for enhancing fruit quality, yield and nutrient content. J. Hortl. Sci.  9(2):166-171.
  34. S.D. Shikhamany, Sanjay K. Jeughale, Kailas N. Khapre and R. Venugopalan (2015). Variation in relation between yield and yield attributes in ‘Thompson Seedless’ grape and its clones. J. Hortl. Sci.  10(1):8-12.
  35. Dinesh Inamadar, R. Venugopalan, K. Padmini (2015). Robust ANOVA: An illustrative study in horticultural crop research. International Journal of Mathematical and Computational Sciences.:9, (2):85-89.
  36. V. Srilatha, Y.T.N. Reddy, K.K. Upreti, R. Venugopalan, and H.L. Jayaram (2016). Responses of pruning and paclobutrazol in mango (Mangiferaindica L.): changes in tree vigour, flowering and phenols. J. Applied Hort. 11(2). 871-878.
  37. R. Venugopalan, M.R. Dinesh and T. Janakiram (2016).  PG Education at IIHR: Present Status and Future Prospects. Indian Horticulture. 61(3):23-24.
  38. V. Sridhar, L. S. Vinesh, M. Jaya Shankar and R. Venugopalan (2016).  Climex Based Spatio-Temporal Analysis For Predicting The Number of Generations of Spodoptera Litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Under Climate Change Scenario. The Bioscon., An International Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences. 11(2): 871-878.
  39. Sujatha A. Nair and R. Venugopalan (2016). Stability analysis of nutrient scheduling for lean season flowering in Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 86(3): 321–325.
  40. A.N. Ganeshamurthy, V Ravindra, R Venugopalan, Malarvizhi Mathiazhagan, RM Bhat (2016). Biomass Distribution and Development of Allometric Equations for Non-Destructive Estimation of Carbon Sequestration in Grafted Mango Trees. Journal of Agricultural Science, 8(8): 201-211.
  41. R Ashokan, V. Sridhar,R. Venugopalan and Y.G. Prasad(2016).Tutaabsoluta in India . Proceedings of International ICE Symposium on Global Spread and Management of the South American Tomato Leafminer, Tutaabsoluta. Pp1-6.
  42. Vinay G.M., Praneeth Y.S., Chithiraichelvan R., Upreti K.K.,  Venugopalan R. (2016). Biochemical Changes During Off-Season Flowering In Custard Apple (Annona Squamosa L.) Cv. Arkasahan Induced By Pruning And Defoliation.  International Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 8,(59),-3314-3317.
  43. B Arunkumar, HB Lingaiah, TH Singh, R Venugopalan, K Jyothi (2017). Line× tester analysis for the study of combining ability in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Environment and Ecology, 35 (2B),1136-1141.
  44. R Kiran Kumar, S Jaganath, TR Guruprasad, CK Narayana, AN Balakrishna, R Venugopalan, S Anilkumar (2017). Studies on Plant Density and Integrated Nutrient Management for Growth, Yield, Quality and Shelf Life of Guava cv. Lalit in Rainy Season. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci, 5(2): 354-366.
  45. Soumya K, Krishnamoorthy, A, Prakash Patil, Venugopalan R and M G Venkatesha (2017). Forecasting the incidence of jackfruit shoot and fruit borer Diaphania caesalis Walker (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) ecosystems. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies; 5(1): 483-487.
  46.  Ambresh, H.B. Lingaiah, B. Fakrudin, M. Shivapriya, T.H.Singh, R. Venugopalan and Amruta Bhat (2017).Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and quality traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (1) 19-21.
  47. Kirtimala B. Naik, S. K. Nataraj, D. P. Kumar, Y. G. Shadakshari, G. B. Seetharamu, R. Venugopalan, K.V. Jayaprasad(2017). Standardisation of agro-techniques for flower quality parameters in ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 12(1):33-41.
  48. Veluru Bhargav, , Rajiv Kumar, K.S. Shivashankara, T. Manjunatha Rao, M.V. DhananjayaAnuradha Sanec, T. Usha Bharathi, R. Venugopalan and T.K. Roy (2018). Diversity of flavonoids profile in China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees.] genotypes. Industrial Crops and Products. 111: 513–519.
  49. Nandhini, E,  Padmini, K, . Venugopalan, R,   Anjanappa , M and H.B. Lingaiah (2018). Flower- visiting insect pollinators of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] in Bengaluru region. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 7(2):1406-1408.
  50.  B. Sureshkumara, H. B. Lingaiah, R. Venugopalan and M. Shivapriya (2018).  Genetic Variability Studies for Yield and Quality Traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (4): 462-467.
  51.  B. Sureshkumara, H. B. Lingaiah, M. Shivapriya, R. Venugopalan and M. Anjanappa (2018).  Combining Ability Studies for Fruit Yield and Quality Traits in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).   Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (5): 995-1000.
  52. R. Hanumanthaiah, R. Venugopalan, K. Padmini and K.J. Yogeesh (2018). Yield prediction in Brinjal (Solanum melongena) across different growth stages using ANN models.  Int.J.Curr.Microbiol. App. Sci. 7(4): 803-810.
  53.  Neelam Thakur, Sujatha A. Nair, Rajiv Kumar, T. Usha Bharathi, M.V. Dhananjaya and R. Venugopalan (2018). Evaluation of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) for Desirable Horticultural Traits. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol. App. Sci. 7(8): 565-574.
  54.  Veluru Bhargav, Rajiv Kumar, T Manjunatha Rao, T Usha Bharathi, MV Dhananjaya and R Venugopalan (2018). Estimation of standard heterosis in F1 hybrids of China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees]. International Journal of Chemical Studies; 6(6): 1215-1218.
  55.  Kalaivanan D., K. Sudhir and Venugopalan, R. (2018). Growth, Phosphorus Uptake and Yield of ‘Robusta’ Banana (Musa Xparadisiaca) as Influenced by Dose and Placement of 32P Labelled Single Super Phosphate Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(12): 2338-2351.
  56. Prasanth, K., Varalakshmi, B., Venugopalan, R. and Sriram,S.(2018). Screening of bitter gourd germplasm and advanced breeding lines against powdery mildew Indian Phytopathology. 72(1): 15-22.
  57. Manjunath Totad, IN Doreyappagowda, GJ Suresh, KR Vasudev, KN Sreenivas, KS Shivashankar, R Venugopalan, K Ranjitha (2018). Preservation of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus L.) slices by hurdle technology. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 6(5): 815-820.  
  58. Kirtimala B. Naik, S.K. Nataraj, D. P. Kumar, Y. G. Shadakshari, G.K. Seetharamu, R. Veugopalan, K.V. Jayaprasad (2018). Evaluation of ornamental sunflower for value addition).  Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 13(1):.116-118.
  59. Bhargav Veluru, Rajiv Kumar, Manjunatha T Rao, MV Dhananjaya, R Venugopalan (2019). Estimation of heterobeltiosis in F1 hybrids of China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees]. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 11(1):1-6.   NAAS 4.84.
  60. Veluru Bhargav, Rajiv Kumar, T Manjunatha Rao, T Usha Bharathi, MV Dhananjaya, R Venugopalan (2019). Combining ability analysis for quantitative traits in China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees]. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 10(1): 277-284.  NAAS 4.97.
  61. Prakash Kerure, M.Pitchaimuthu, V. Srinivasa and R. Venugopalan (2019). Heterosis for Yield and its Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.,  8(1): 353-367.
  62. Bhargav V, Kumar Rajiv, Rao TManjuntha, Sane Anuradha, Venugopalan R, Kumari        Pratiksha (2019). Evaluation of China Aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees.] Genotypes for Vegetative, Flowering, Yield and Postharvest Life. Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources. 32(1):80-84.
  63. Raimani Hembrom, T. Manjunatha Rao, S. Sriram, Rajiv Kumar, R. Venugopalan and Dhananjaya, M. V. (2019). Evaluation of Gladiolus Genotypes for Resistance to Different Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 8(6): 2811-2821.
  64. Hemlata, T Manjunatha Rao, S Sriram, R Venugopalan, Rajiv Kumar, MV Dhananjaya and Leela Sahijram (2019). Effect of physical, chemical and biological corm treatments on vegetative growth, flowering, corm character and corm rot in gladiolus. Int. J. Chem. Stud., 7(4): 607-611.
  65. Ashish Kaushal, AT Sadashiva, R Venugopalan, KV Ravishankar and TH Singh (2019). Assessment of genetic variability and its components for yield and yield contributing traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Int. J. Chem. Stud., 7(3): 3278-3281.
  66.  Smaranika Mishra, T.S. Aghora and R. Venugopalan (2019). Divergence studies in Indian cluster bean (cyamopsis tetragonoloba l. Taub.) for developing variety for vegetable purpose. Journal of Plant Development Science.  11(4) : 237-242.
  67. C.Kanupriya, PC Tripathi, P Singh, R Venugopalan, V Radhika (2019). Analysis of morphological, biochemical and molecular diversity in karonda (Carissa carandas L.) germplasm. Fruits 74 (3), 130-140.
  68.  P Pandiyaraj, TH Singh, K Madhavi Reddy, AT Sadashiva, MV Dhananjaya, Duleep Kumar Samuel, R Venugopalan and DC Lakshmana Reddy (2019). Evaluation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) germplasm for yield and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) disease resistance. Int. J. Chem. Stud., 7(4): 836-838.
  69.  R. Venugopalan and B.L. Manjunath (2019). Application of Robust ANOVA methods in Papaya having outlier data. J. of Indian Soc., of Agri., Stat., 73(2):129-132.
  70.  A. K. Rai, Y. B. Basavaraj, A. T. Sadashiva, M. Krishna Reddy, K. V. Ravishankar, Zakir Hussain, R. Venugopalan, K. Madhavi Reddy (2020). Evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to bud necrosis disease caused by groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV). Crop Protection. 131:1-8.
  71. R. Venkattakumar, Sudha Mysore, R. Venugopalan, B. Balakrishnan, B. Narayaswamy, G. A. Atheequlla (2019). Indian Research Journal of Extension Education. 19(2): 7-12.
  72. G. Sandhya Rani, M. Sankaran, K. S. Shivashankara, R. Venugopalan, A. Rekha (2019). Biochemical profiling of aroma and flavonoid compounds in certain genotypes of pummelo. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 76(4): 603-10.
  73. K. Nagaraju, M. Pitchaimuthu, A. T. Sadashiva, E. S. Rao, A. Rekha, R. Venugopalan (2019). Interspecific Hybridization in Genus Abelmoschus Medikus. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 8(8):425-38.
  74.  S. Mishra, R. H. Laxman, K. Madhavi Reddy, R. Venugopalan (2020). TIR approach and stress tolerance indices to identify donor for high-temperature stress tolerance in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Plant Genetic Resources. 18(1):19-27.
  75.  R. Venugopalan, M. Pitchaimuthu and M. Chaitra (2020). Nonparametric Stability Approach for Horticultural   crop varietal release. JISAS 74(1): 73-80.
  76. K. Nataraj, G. K. Seetharamu, V. Srinivasa, Balaji, S. Kulkarni, Rajiv Kumar,
    Lakshmana, R. Venugopalan and P. M. Munikrishnappa (2020).
    Screening of China Aster F1 Hybrids for Growth and Yield Characters.
    Int. J. Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.. 9(5): 656-666.
  77. Devaraju, K. M. Indiresh, V. Srinivasa, D. Lakshmana, T. H. Singh, V. Devappa and R.  Venugopalan (2020).  Breeding Potential of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes using D2 Analysis under Hill Zones of Karnataka, India. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci., 9(3): 2768-2773.
  78.  A. K. Rai., A. T. Sadashiva, Y. B. Basavaraj, R. Venugopalan, E. S. Rao (2020). Genetic analysis of bud necrosis disease caused by groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Euphytica 216 (8): 1-10.   
  79. A. K. Rai, Y. B. Basavaraj, A. T. Sadashiva, M. Krishna Reddy, K. V. Ravishankar, Zakir Hussain, R. Venugopalan, K. Madhavi Reddy. (2020). Evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to bud necrosis disease caused by groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV). Crop Protection, 131.
  80. K. M. Indiresh, V. Srinivasa, D. Lakshmana, T. H. Singh, V. Devappa, R. Venugopalan, (2020). Studies on variability components for yield and its attributes in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under hill zone of Karnataka. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 9(2): 2200-2203.
  81. S. K. Nataraj, G. K. Seetharamu, V. Srinivasa, Balaji S. Kulkarni, Rajiv Kumar, D. Lakshmana, R. Venugopalan, M. Munikrishnappa. (2020). Exploitation of Commercial Heterosis for Economic Traits in China Aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees.]. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 9(6): 1620-1628.
  82. Ashish Kaushal, A. T. Sadashiva, M. Krishna Reddy, E. Srinivasa Rao, T. H. Singh, S. Sriram, M. V. Dhananjay, R. Venugopalan, K. V. Ravishankar (2020). Assessment of the effectiveness of Ty genes in tomato against Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus. Plant Pathology69(9): 1777-1786.
  83. Kumar K. Ajay, A. Rekha, R. Venugopalan, K. S. Shivashankara, Kumar S. Mohan, M. K. Honnabyraiah and N. Jyothi (2020). Grouping of jamum genotypes based on fruit quality parameters. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 77(3). PP: 412-417.
  84. R. Venkattakumar, Sudha Mysore, R. Venugopalan, Nita Khandekar, B. Narayanaswamy, B. Balakrishna, Achala Paripurna, T. M. Reddy, G. A. Atheequlla (2020). Structural and Functional Interventions Needed For Effective Functioning Of Farmers’producer Companies. International Journal of Development Extension. 11(1).
  85. M. Sankaran, M. R. Dinesh, D. C. S. Gowda, R. Venugopalan (2020). Genetic Analysis in mango (Mangifera indica L.) based on fruit characteristics of 400 genotypes. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 15(2): 161-172.
  86. B. S. Harish, K. Umesha, R. Venugopalan, B. N. Maruthi Prasad, R. V. Shreedhara, G. J. Suresh. (2021). Photo-selective nets and metabolic elicitors influences the colour values of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 10(1): 2875- 2879.
  87. S. K. Nataraj, G. K. Seetharamu, Rajiv Kumar, V. Srinivasa, B. S. Kulkarni, R. Venugopalan, K. B. Naik. (2021). Genetic variability and heritability for quantitative traits in China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees.]. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 12(3): 712-717.
  88. D. C. Manjunathagowda, M. Anjanappa, K. Jayaswall, R. Venugopalan, A. Kumar, K. S. Shankarappa, H. B. Lingaiah. (2021). Variability and genetic diversity among selfed lines (S1) of onion (Allium cepa L.). NISCAIR-CSIR, India.
  89. S. Mishra, V. Varsha, H. B. Lingaiah, R. Venugopalan, Keshav Rao, Jyothi Kattegoudar, Madhavi Reddy. (2021). Combining ability studies to develop superior hybrids in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum L.). Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 16(2): 199-205.
  90. R. Venkattakumar, T. M. Gajanana, R. Venugopalan. (2021). Innovative models operated for marketing of horticultural produces during COVID 19 lockdown. Agricultural economics research review, 34, 223.
  91. G. M. Kumar, S. Sriram, T. Narendrappa, R. Venugopalan (2021). Integrated management of Phytophthora capsici Leon in sweet pepper. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 27(2): 274-285.
  92. M. Kaur, B. Varalakshmi, M. Kumar, E. S. Rao, M. Pitchaimuthu, B. Mahesha, R. Venugopalan, D. C. Lakshmanareddy. (2021). Genetic analysis of yellow mosaic disease resistance in loofah. Australasian Plant Pathology. 50(4): 407-414.
  93. A. Sudan, S. Anil Kumar, Venkata Rao, M. Shivanna and R. Venugopalan (2022). Diagnosis of nutrient content and standardization of leaf sampling technique in jackfruit. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 11(10): 1937-1944.
  94. B. M. Muralidhara, T. Sakthivel, D. C. Lakshmanareddy, G. Karunakaran, M. K. Honnabyraiah, V. Venkatravanappa, S. Savadi, D. V. Vaka, P. Naresh, K. S. Shivashankara, R. Venugopalan. (2022). Genetic diversity and population structure analyses in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) accessions of India.
  95. V. S. Karthik Nayaka, R. B. Tiwari, C. K. Narayana, K. Ranjitha, Shamina Azeez, C. Vasugi, R. Venugopalan, S. Bhuvaneswari, O. J. Sujayasree. (2022). Comparative effect of different sugars instigating non-enzymatic browning and Maillard reaction products in guava fruit leather. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 17(1): 174-183.
  96. B. S. Harish, K. Umesha, R. Venugopalan, B. N. Maruthi Prasad. (2022). Photo-selective nets influence physiology, growth, yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 186.
  97. Nusrat Perveen, M. R. Dinesh, M. Sankaran, K. S. Shivashankara, R. Venugopalan. (2022). Characterization and evaluation of putative mutant populations of polyembryonic mango genotype Nekkare for dwarfing rootstock traits. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 17(2).
  98. O. J. Sujayasree, R. B. Tiwari, R. Venugopalan, C. K. Narayana, S. Bhuvaneswari, K. Ranjitha, H. S. Oberoi, Shamina Azeez, T. Sakthivel, V. S. K. Nayaka. (2022). Optimization of factors influencing osmotic dehydration of aonla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) segments in salt solution using response surface methodology. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 17(2).
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