Division of Basic Sciences was formed in 2019 by merger of Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (since 1968) and Division of Biotechnology (since 1993) to address physiological, biochemical, nutritional mechanisms and problems associated with horticultural crops. The Division also works on development of biotechnological tools for solving problems related to horticultural crop production and protection and on pesticide residue dynamics in horticultural ecosystem.
Dr. Raja Rao,
Dr. M.D. Awasthi
Dr. G.S.R. Murti,
Dr. Lalitha Anand,
Dr. C Ashwath,
Dr. Akella Vani,
Dr. Debi Sharma (Presently)
Achievements (Top 10)
- Brinjal accessions Arka Harshitha, Poluruvanga, Mattigulla, Pollurvanga, IIHR-586 are identified as potential rootstocks for low moisture, salinity and nematode stress
- Chilli genotypes, IIHR 4550 and IIHR 4517 belonging to Capsicum chinense and cultivars Araka Lohit, Arka Haritha and Punjab Gucchedar belonging to Capsicum annuum have higher tolerance to deficit water stress.
- Cucumber accessions IC-345635, IC-526627, IC-398523, IC-429942, IC-432030 and bottle gourd germplasm lines BG 141, BG 122-5, BG 98-3, BG 119-2, BG 125-5-1 and BG 64 are identified as lines showing tolerance to deficit moisture stress at seedling stage
- Chilli seed priming treatment with 10-3M KH2PO4 + 50 mM glycine betaine treatment and bio-priming with (P72, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) induce higher tolerance under 50% FC moisture regime. Higher membrane stability index, chlorophyll content and relative water content and cumulative water use efficiency are found important attributes of deficit moisture stress
- Andrographolide content in kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) can be increased by 40-50% though water stress imposition during flowering stage.
- In Banana, linkage map is developed for a cross between Musa acuminata 'Calcutta-4' (A genome) and Musa balbisiana 'Bee heekela' (B Genome) using the identified SNPs (GBS method). QTLs were identified for drought traits namely cuticular wax content, stomatal density and leaf water retention capacity (LWRC)
- Presence of high concentration of ureides (allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, and hypoxanthine) in susceptible French bean genotype (ArkaKomal) act as a predisposing factors for rust infection as the rust pathogen utilizes the ureides as nitrogen source for their multiplication.
- Linkage map with SSRs and identification of two major QTLs linked to WBNV resistance in watermelon. In tomato, five QTLs across two chromosomes i.e. Chromosome number 2 and 6 were identified for early blight resistance. Four QTL regions (eb2.1, eb2.2 eb2.3 and eb2.4) has been identified on the chromosome number 2, and another one QTL region (eb6.1) has been identified on chromosome 6
- Developed transgenic banana cv Rasthali and Grand naine with antiapoptosis gene construct for Fusarium wilt resistance.
- Molecular characterization of different sap sucking insect pests and vectors such as thrips, mealybugs, whiteflies, aphids, psyllids, leafhoppers. Characterized small RNA profile (miRNA, siRNA, piwiRNA) of thrips, aphids, tea mosquito bug, whiteflies.
- In Mango, bisexual flower number are significantly higher in Amrapali, Dashehari, Arka Anmol and Arka Udaya and are lowest in Alphonso and Puneet. Fruit set, pollen viability and stigma receptivity are also lower in Alphonso and A. Puneet compared to Dashehari and Amrapali. Pollen of Amrapali were found to have higher hormones and polyamines and also amino acids compared to Alphonso
- ArkaSahan has lower pollen germination, low pollen tube growth and more of tetrad pollens when compared to A squamosa which has more of monads. Foliar sprays of hormones, minerals increase the fruit set in ArkaSaha
- 13.Developed microsatellite markers for Jamun, Sapota, Jackfruit and custard apple using partial genome sequence data derived from NGS Illumina platform. Using these SSRs diversity analysis of germplasm collected across Indian subcontinent was done
- Dynamics of major pesticides during the preparation of processed products of various fruits and vegetables including tomato, onion, curry leaf, moringa leaf, chilli, mango, guava, papaya and grapes were studied. Processing Factors (PFs) for each pesticide were worked out for major processed products. PFs are the key inputs for the fixation of Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) values of pesticides for processed commodities. Dissipation of pesticide residues in crops was found to be slower in low cost polyhouses as compared to that in open field.
- A method was developed for the extraction of insecticidal compounds from annona seeds. The extract was demonstrated for effecitve mangement of sucking pests like aphids, thrips and whiteflies.
Technologies (Top 10)
- Arka Herbiwash: a herbal powder made of dried and powdered plant parts. It is a simple and completely safe herbal product to be used to wash fruits and vegetables with, in order to remove surface residues of pesticides and food-borne pathogens from fruits and vegetables. The product is cheap and can be easily prepared.
- Arka Avocado Powder: Dried avocado powder is stable for >3-6 months at room temperature, when stored in aluminium laminated pouches. It increases in shelf life of the value- added product, of the otherwise seasonal and perishable fruit; and ease of transport and incorporation into preparations (culinary, pharmaceuticals) is an added advantage. The Cost: Benefit ratio of this process technology is 1:1.78
- Arka Interspecific Tomato Graftage: A strategy for ameliorating flooding stress in tomato under climate change scenario. Plants of tomato grafted on brinjal rootstock cv. Arka Neelkanth sustain excess moisture (water stagnation) stress upto 6 days. The grafted plants sustain, recover and give normal yield.
- Arka Elakki Bale Suspension Culture: a technique of large scale micropropagation of banana cv elakki bale using embryogenic cell suspension (ECS)
- Dr Ashokan, R. - Fulbright-Nehru Academic and Professional Excellence Award - 2020-2021
- Dr Basavaprabhu L. Patil - Fulbright-Nehru Academic & Professional Excellence Fellowship - 2022-23
- Single step assembly of double stranded RNA forming construct by single PCR and ligation for RNA interference Final patent (Patent No.: 295256)
- DNA based diagnostics for identification of citrus rootstock cultivars (Patent No.: 407695)
Dr. K S SHIVASHANKARA
Principal Scientist & I/c Head
Division of Basic Sciences
ICAR-IIHR, Hessaraghatta Lake Post
Bangalore – 560 089.