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Manmohan M.

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Principal Scientist (Plant Physiology)
Division of Basic Sciences
Plant molecular biology, plant transformation, abiotic stress tolerance, transgenics for useful traits, RNAi
Research Accomplishments: 


  1. CRISPR/Cas mediated Genome Editing in papaya and chilli for PRSV and ChiVMV resistance respectively.
  2. Durable and broad spectrum RNAi based multiple virus (four viruses, GBNV, CMV, ChiVMV, CaCV) disease resistant tomato lines were developed.
  3. Molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in crops mainly drought, heat and salinity tolerance & development of abiotic stress tolerant crops in tomato, chilli, tobacco. Developed transgenic crops (tomato & chilli) overexpressing dreb1A, Dreb2S and PjVP and pyramidng if Dreb2S and PjVP for droguht salinity and heat tolerance. Gene constructs have been made available to researchers viz. PAU Ludhiana.
  4. Genes conferring traits contributing to abiotic stress tolerance were cloned including the novel genes from hardy species such as Prosopis species and are functionally validated.
  5. Metabolic engineering for nutraceuticals: Tomato fruits accumulating very high levels of anthocyanins (100-150 folds) were developed by the fruit specific metabolic engineering by using transcription factors form snap dragon, anthocyanins are valued for their protective functions against cancers and cardiovascular diseases.
  6. Pioneers in India to demonstrate the potential of RNAi in insect pest management. Extensive studies were conducted on Helicoverpa armigera the global pest using in vitro dsRNA bioassay and in planta synthesized dsRNA. Tomato plants expressing dsRNA of JHAMT and Serine protease disrupt, insect development.
  7. Optimized efficient protocols for transformation and regeneration of important horticultural crops such as chilli, tomato, broccoli, papaya and watermelon.

(During the Period of 2019-2023)

Gene silencng constructs for durable  multiple (four) virus disease resistance common to chilli and tomato were developed and tomato plants were developed, were found to be highly resistant to the four viruses.  CRISPR/Cas9 gene constructs (Fifteen) were develped for imparting PRSV recessive resistance in papaya. High-through put embryogenic papaya transformation was developed with up to 36 %  transformation efficiency. Genome edited papaya lines were developed, with mutations in the eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF4E and its isoform). M2 plants were confirmed for mutation and evaluation for PRSV resistance is underway. Developed CRISPR/Cas9 gene constructs for potyvirus resistance in chilli, chilli transformation was carried with CRISPR constructs.Involved in CRISPR vector development and diagnostics of plant insect pests  and viral vectors. CRISPR/Cas9 gene cosntructs were developed for Knocking-out-the virus: Elimination of the endogenous Banana streak viral sequences from banana through genome editing with CRISPR-CAs9 system: PI of collaborating center of DBT-NER programme. 

Varieties / Technologies Developed: 


Technology for single step RNAi  gene construct for plants was developed, High anthocyanin tomato lines were developed, CRISPR genome edited papaya lines were gnerated, multiple virus resistant tomato lines were developed


(Best 10/High Impact)

  1. R. Wisharda, A. Karuppannasamy, R. Asokana, C.N. Bhargava, P.Chalapathi, Y. Dhawane, Sampath Kumar S., Manamohan M., A. Rai (2023). CRISPR/Cas9 editing of transformer2 gene of the Oriental fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) leads to intersex phenotype. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology.
  2. K.Ashok, C.N.Bhargava, |R. Asokan, C.Pradeep, J.S. Kennedy, A.Rai, M. Manamohan. (2023). First report on the utility of pupal case for early determination of CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein mediated genomic edits in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Tephritidae: Diptera).  Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. e22024.
  3. R. Aravintharaj, R. Asokan, K. Prasad Babu, M. Manamohan  & K. Nagendran (2023). Molecular characterization of the Indian isolate (Ka-To) of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). 3 Biotech 13:169
  4. Raimani  Hembrom,  T Manjunatha  Rao,  Maligeppagol Manamohan, S Sriram  and Rajiv Kumar(2020). Isolation of quality DNA from gladiolus corms using different methods. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 891): 486-489. 
    5. Ramesh, A. N., Hanur, V.S., Santosh, D. B., Bharani,S. S., Santosh, G. M. and Manamohan, M.(2019). Improving quality and shelf life inpapaya (Carica papaya) throughnovel approaches. Int. J. Agri. Sci., 11: 8024-8026.
  5. Ramesh, A. N.,Vageeshbabu S. Hanur, Manamohan, M., Rekha, et al. (2019). Effect of gamma radiation forimproving quality in papaya (Caricapapaya L.) cv. Arka Prabhath in M1generation. International Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences 7:515-524.
  6. Ramesh, A. N.,Vageeshbabu S. Hanur,Dayal Doss, Subhash Bharani, Santhosh, G. M.,Rekha, A., Prasad Babu,K., Sudhakar Rao, Manamohan, M., (2019). Effect of gamma radiation forenhancing qualitative andquantitative traits in papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Arka Prabhath in M2generation through TILLING. International Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences.7: 557-570.
  7. Chaturvedi Kanupriya, Manamohan Maligeppagol and Leela Sahijram (2019). Modifying DNA methylation pattern in papaya embryos to harness useful and stable variants. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 76(3): 522-526.
  8. K. Prasad Babu, Manamohan Maligeppagol and M. Krishna Reddy. (2019). Overlap extension PCR to anneal multiple DNA fragments for high-throughput double stranded RNAi vector construction. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications. 12(1): 46-53.
  9. K. Prasad Babu, Manamohan Maligeppagol, R. Asokan and M. Krishna Reddy (2019). Screening of a multi-virus resistant RNAi construct in cowpea through transient vacuum infiltration method. VirusDisease 30(3): 1-10.
  10. Sharath Chandra, G; Asokan, R; Manamohan, M. et al.(2019). Enhancement of RNAi by using concatemerized double-stranded RNA. Pest Management Science :75: 506–514. DOI 10.1002/ps.5149.
  11. Sharath Chandra G, Asokan R, Manamohan M, et al. (2018).Double-Stranded RNA-Mediated Suppression of Trypsin-Like Serine Protease (t-SP) Triggers Over-Expression of Another t-SP Isoform in Helicoverpa armigera. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology.184(2): 746-761.
  12. Navale Prakash M.,  Manamohan Maligeppagol, Asokan R, Krishna V., Sharath Chandra G,Prasad Babu K., Latha J., Krishna Kumar N.K. and Ellango R.(2017). Transgenic tomato expressing dsRNA of juvenile hormone acid O-methyl transferase gene of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affects larval growth and its development. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 20: 559-567.
  13. Manamohan Maligeppagol, R. Manjula, Prakash M. Navale, K. Prasad Babu, Bhimangoud M. Kumbar, R.H. Laxman.(2016). Genetic transformation of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) with dreb1A transcription factor known to impart drought tolerance. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 15: 17-24.
  14. Sharath Chandra, R. Asokan, M. Manamohan and T. Sita.(2016). Cytochrome P450 isoforms transcriptional, larval growth and development responses to host allelochemicals in the generalist herbivore, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Current Science.111(5): 901-6.
  15. G. Sharath Chandra,  R. Asokan, M. Manamohan, N. K. Krishna Kumar  and T. Sita (2014). Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Normalization in Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Molecular Biology.48(6): 813-822.
  16. R. Asokan, G. Sharath Chandra, M. Manamohan, N. K. Krishna Kumar and T. Sita (2014). Response of various target genes to diet-delivered dsRNA mediated RNA interference in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Journal of Pest Science 87: 163-172.
  17. M. Manamohan, G. Sharath Chandra, R. Asokan, H. Deepa, M.N. Prakash. (2013). One-step DNA fragment assembly for expressing intron containing hairpin RNA in plants for gene silencing. Analytical Biochemistry 433: 189-191.
  18. R. Asokan, G. Sharath Chandra, M. Manamohan and N.K. Krishna Kumar. (2013). Quantitative real time PCR studies on the differential response of mid gut and non-mid gut genes to RNAi in the American boll worm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 103: 555-563.
  19. Manamohan M., R. Asokan, Prakash, M.N., G. Sharath Chandra, Deepa H., Rajiv, P.R., Keshav Rao, C.S. Bujji Babu, K. Prasad Babu, and N.K. Krishnakumar. (2013). Anthocyanin enrichment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit by metabolic engineering. Current Science: 105(1):72-80.
  20. G. Sharath Chandra, R. Asokan, M. Manamohan.(2012). Modified competing polymerase chain reaction primer for single tube quantitative PCR. Analytical Biochemistry. 427: 175-177.
  21. R. Asokan, S.N. Nagesh, M. Manamohan et al.(2012). RNAi mediated management of fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Noctuider, Lepidoptera): Sequence variations in generation of siRNAs for various target genes- an in silico analysis. Current Science. 102(12): 1692-1699.
  22. R. Asokan, S.N. Nagesh, M. Manamohan et al. (2012). Molecular diversity of some important genes of the fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Noctuider, Lepidoptera) from India. Oriental Insects.46(2): 130-143.
  23. M. Manamohan, N. Prakash, G. Sharath Chandra, R. Asokan and Nagesh, S (2011). An improved protocol for rapid and efficient Agrobacterium mediated transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Journal of Applied Horticulture 13 (1):3-7.
  24. Sukhada Mohandas, M. Manamohan, R.D. Rawal, Saikat Chakraborty, H.Y. Sreekanthappa, R. Manjula and H.C. Laxmikantha.(2004). Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum s.sp. cubense with Pseudomonas Fluorescens precolonized to banana roots. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.20(6): 651-655.

Books Chapter 

  1. Methylomics and inheritance in plants: DNA and RNA methylation (ISBN 13: 978-8179105368) 
  2. Capsicum “in Advances in Horticulture Biotechnology- Regeneration Systems” (ISBN 10: 8185873666 / ISBN 13: 9788185873664)
  3. Advances In Horticulture Biotechnology -- Gene Cloning & Transgenics (Vol 5)ISBN : 9788185873749.
  4. Cucurbits “in Advances in Horticulture Biotechnology- Transgenic crops” (ISBN : 9788185873749)
  5. Gene Cloning and Transgenincs “Capsicum annuum L”.(ISBN : 9788185873749)


Single step intron containing hairpin RNA for RNA interference in plants No. 295256
Permanent Address: 
Division of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Po. Bangalore-560089
Email Address:
Telephone #: 
080-23086100 Extn 404