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It is always advisable to use fresh spawn (within one month of its growth). However spawn can be stored in refrigerator for 30-60 days. The spawn of milky mushroom and paddy straw mushroom should not be stored at low temperature. The productivity becomes lower, spawn running period increases, contamination incidence may increase with older spawn. In oyster and milky mushroom fruiting may start within the spawn packet if stored for long.

  • Harvest at optimum maturity at 50% neck fall.
  • Stop irrigation 10 to 15 days before harvest.
  • Harvest with leaves and cure by windrow method and afterwards cut the leaves leaving 1” neck length.
  • Store in good ventilated nylon bags, plastic rates in rooms or storage structures with good air circulation.
  • Varieties like Arka Niketan can be stored upto about 5 months .
  • The weight loss and other storage losses will be about 15% in 4 months and 20% in 5 months.

The cultivation technology of 4 different mushrooms has been standardized by IIHR. A priced technical bulletin is available on this aspect. The cultivation technology is also available on IIHR website whose addresses is http//

Legislative measures of a country to restrict or prohibit the entry of certain plant materials from other countries to avoid the risk of exotic pests getting entered that country.

Hot water and steam are the best methods of substrate pasteurization. However a chemical method of substrate sterilization has been evolved by NRCM, Solan incorporating Bavistin and formaldehyde. This method although simple is not recommended by IIHR because it involves carcinogenic chemicals like formaldehyde, the problem of resistance and the problem of residue. The incidence of coprinus, a weed mushroom increases by this method because the spores of this weed mushroom are always found on the straw and the two chemicals used have no effect on the spores of this fungus; which grows rampantly in the absence of competition and slow growth of the desirable mushroom fungus. The biological efficiency on chemically sterilized straw is lowere as compared to hot water and steam pasteurization.

Onions can be stored in cold storage.

  • A temperature of 0°C (32°F) with Relative Humidity of about 65% has to be maintained in cold storage which is difficult and highly expensive to maintain. Hence, commercially onion is not cold stored.

Restricting the movement of particular plant or plant material within the country from a specified area to other parts to prevent the spread of a pest or disease which is not prevailing in other parts of country.

No. There may be hidden pests and diseases, which are not present in our country. Hence it is not desirable to carry plant materials without necessary quarantine clearance.

Tropical and sub-tropical vegetables (Tomato, bhendi, brinjal, cucurbits, etc




7 to 8°C

Temperatate vegetables (Cabbage, Carrot, Cauliflowr peas etc..

0 to 2°C.


Important such pests are serpentine leaf miner, (Liriomyza trifolii) on vegetable and ornamental crops, spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) on guava and ornamental crops, coconut mite, (Aceria guereronis) on coconut and coffee berry borer, (Hypothenemus hampei) on coffee.

<p><span>Low cost structures like thatched huts may be used as mushroom growing rooms. Care must be taken to make it rat proof. Inner lining of some cheap materials like gunny cloth, coir mats or any other material which can absorb water and release it slowly over a longer period must be preferred to maintain humidity. </span></p>

It is an introduced pest from other countries and previously not known to occur in our country.

Freshly harvested Oyster mushroom can be stored for 12-15 days at 0°C after packaging in Polyethylene (100 gauge) bags.  At room temperature, the storage life will be only 1 day with polyethylene packaging.

Mushrooms can be marketed in hotels, HOPCOMS, vegetable stores etc. IIHR can not help in marketing of the produce. The grower has to create market by making the people aware about the vegetable status of mushroom and its nutritional and medicinal properties. However, the institute can help by passing on the addresses of the people interested in marketing mushrooms; if available. The website may be checked for marketing mushrooms. For an efficient integrated cultivation and marketing system, growers must unite and form a co-operative with distinct division of labour in terms of spawn production, cultivation, dehydration and packaging and marketing so that both quality and quantity may be achieved. Women entrepreneurs can form exclusive women groups involved in cultivation and product development. Exclusive mushroom restaurants may be set up. The necessary training in this regard can be obtained from IIHR or NRCM, Solan.