Sample Heading

Sample Heading


A single spray of antitranspirants either at flower initiation or fruit development stage improved the yield of rainfed tomato. PMA and Kaolin were found to improve the plant water status and yield. In onion plants Kaolin when sprayed at 30 or 50 days after planting improved the bulb size and yield.

A commercial formulation of PCPA –Tomatotone at 50 ppm (supplied by AVRDC, Taiwan) sprayed to the flower clusters was found to be effective in improving the fruit set in tomato.

Mepiquat chloride a plant growth retardant when sprayed 2.0ml,2.5ml and 3.0ml/l at the flower bud initia­tion stage in tomato, in okra 3 weeks after germination and in onion at 45,60, and 75 days after planting improved the yield.

The studies conducted at IIHR have shown that maintaining open canopy by pruning back to the 0.74cm diameter thick shoots could reduce the incidence of aril browning from 9.06% to 3.17%. Hence, maintaining sparse canopy can help in reducing the incidence of aril browning.

The studies conducted at IIHR indicated that the browning of arils is due to oxidative damage of membranes thereby leading to higher enzymatic browning by polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The exact cause for triggering the oxidative damage in the membranes of arils is under investigation.

Aril browning in pomegranate is a physiological disorder wherein the brown flattened and soft arils are noticed when a fruit is cut open. Externally one cannot make out whether a fruit is affected with aril browning or not. The browning of aril starts with a dark dot on the aril and later on spreads to the entire aril. Consequently, arils develop off flavour and exhibit poor desert quality. The aril browning is more prevalent in cv. Ganesh, though other cultivars are also affected with aril browning to some extent.

Major groups of aroma imparting compounds are terpenes, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and acids.

To improve the fertilizer use efficiency in different fruit crops, the application should be done at proper time and place appropriately. In other words, the time and place of fertilizer placement should coincide with the period and zone of high root activity.


As a result, a significant enhancement of fertilizer use efficiency in terms of the nutrient derived from fertilizer resulted.


Enhancement of fertilizer use efficiency by appropriate time and method of application of N and P in different fruit crops.



Percentage nutrient derived from fertilizer

Improper time and placement

Appropriate time and placement


Banana / Robusta




Citrus / Sweet orange



Citrus / Coorg mandarin



Grape / Thompson Seedless



Mango / Alophonso



Guava / Arka Mridula



Banana  / Robusta



Papaya / Surya

(Vegetative Stage)



Papaya / Surya

(Flowering/Fruiting Stage)





Deficiency symptoms appear in either young or old in old leaves / size of leaf affected. Fungal disease comes in the rainy season and highly humid climate in leaves of all ages.

Apply well decompost compost as basal dose and in transplanted vegetables dip roots in 0.3% Zinc oxide before planting

  • Tomato – Boron and Zinc


  • Capsicum _ Zinc, Boron, Copper, Manganese & Iron


  • Cauliflower – Boron & Molybdenum , Cabbage _ Boron, Molybdenum & Copper


Iron deficiency is the most important disorder-affecting rose followed by Zinc and Boron

  • An advance in Horticulture edited by Dr.K.L.Chadha has chapter on Micronutrients disorders in fruit crops by Dr.M.Edward Raja, IIHR.  


  • Micronutrient management in Bulbus ornamental by Dr.M.Edward Raja – A book titled ‘Bulbus ornament published by Indian Society of Ornamental Horticulture, New Delhi. 



  • Dr.M.Edward Raja –Micronutrient disorders in Ornamental crops -Production Technologies of Important Commercial Flower Crops Edited by I.S.Yadav, M.L.Choudhary  



  • Climate and soil by Dr.M.Edward Raja in the book Advances in citri culture by Dr.Sham Singh and Dr.Shrivastava



  • Dr.M.Edward Raja – Boron deficiencies under high-density planting of Banana Pg. No-336



  • Dr.M.Edward Raja – Phosphorus-induced zinc deficiency in Banana  Pg. No.339 – Proceedings of the Conference on ‘Challenges for Banana production and Utilization in 21st Century’ held in Trichy, India on 24th 25 September 1996



  • Technical bulletin on IVLP – especially on Banana – INM in Banana


Leaf analysis is the basis for application of Micronutrients in perennial fruit crops, rose and for vegetable crops soil test are satisfactory.


  • Most important Micronutrient disorders in Mango – Boron
  • Most important Micronutrient disorders in Papaya – Boron.